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0. Intro to Argument: Ethos, Logos and Pathos
Transcript of 0. Intro to Argument: Ethos, Logos and Pathos
Rhetoric: Art of Argument
Ethos, Logos, Pathos, and Exigence
Who is the speaker? Ethos
Who is the audience? Logos
What is the subject? Pathos
“Rhetoric is the art of ruling the minds of men”
"The ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion" (Aristotle).
"Rhetoric is the art of speaking well" (Quintilian).
Greek for “character.” What is the character of the author or the character of the subject?
The speaker establishes his or her credibility, reliability, or sense of morality and justice.
The author may
also appeal through
morals and philosophy.
The author may establish credibility outright and remind readers of his or her illustrious past or qualifications.
The author may have a command of language and of the topic at hand.
Greek for “word”
How is the argument LOGICAL? Does it make sense? Is it Reasonable?
Evidence is KEY to any argument.
Greek for “suffering” or “experience.”
Appeals to emotions and values of the audience. "Appeals" mean to use language that is emotional in nature, usually conveyed through narrative or story.
Think: What EMOTION is here? How is the speaker trying to convince us through emotion?
Greece Family Picnic
wish you were here!
image from: mnstate.edu/osa/greeklife/
Putting it together...
[And the questions that always must be answered are WHY? and HOW?]
Ethical subjects may include:
Beginning of human personhood (abortion debate).
When you write about ethos, logos, or pathos of an author:
What is the difference between Persuasion and Argument?
Persuasion = Makes claims based on opinion. Wants you to DO something based on ethos and pathos. More emotion based (pathos).
Argument = Makes claims based on facts. Makes counter-claims. Wants you to THINK differently based on logos, ethos, and pathos. More logic based (logos).
photo by leo caillard
"New to Southeast High School? Why not check out the school store and see what supplies you need?"
What the exigence?
The word "argue" comes from Latin arguere: "to make clear," but it also means "to prove."
3.) Please write the full MLA name heading at the top of your assignments:
First Last Names
Month and due date, year
from Facing the Giants:
1.) How do we argue effectively?
Simply put: how are you phrasing your language to convince your audience logically, emotionally, and ethically.
What our job is to 1.) figure out who the speaker is; 2.) what is that speaker's logic?; 3.) how does that speaker convince the audience? and 4.) what is that speaker's intention?
Rhetoric began with the Greeks and this skill was a way to show elitism and social class by the way a person spoke. Those who knew this art would teach others for a high fee.
The foundation of rhetoric is Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.
Clip from The Big Bang Theory:
The Aristotle Triangle
Watch a clip from John Adams. What are examples of Ethos, Logos, or Pathos, and why?
Put it all together:
Consider how the following are credible, logical, and emotional
Persuasion or Argument?
The author may be well known and knowledgeable about the subject.
Do not write:
"The author's ethos ... "
"The author's credibility ... "
Now discuss ethos.
Where does ethos, logos, and pathos fit on the triangle?
the urgency of a topic and the reason it is important to discuss it right now.
How timely was the coach's speech and lesson?
What if the coach had waited to give his speech and lesson?
"The author uses logos ... "
"The author uses pathos ... "
"The speaker's logic ... "
"The speaker's emotion ... "
Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address:
Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure.
We are met on a great battlefield of that war.
We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.
It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground.
The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract.
The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here.
It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us --that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion --that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.