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Information Revolution

PHYS 104 Intro to Consumer Technology
by

David Mancuso

on 10 December 2012

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Transcript of Information Revolution

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Information Revolution PHYS 104 - Intro to Consumer Technology
University of Scranton
Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering


Information Revolution
Myth or Reality?
Driving almost every aspect of our lives
IT - "a giant black hole that drains corporate resources, demands ever-rising levels of expensive support staff and returns only negligible productivity increases" Understanding today’s IT
Basis for learning tomorrow’s IT

TV, radio, shopping, banking, medical diagnosis Transitioning and bound to soon collapse into the web

Information concepts:
Creation -> Transmission -> Storage -> Presentation

A system-level approach
Mathematics -> to quantify info. content (image, sound..)
-> interrelation among BW, info,
Transmission speed, etc Signal
actual entity (electrical, optical, mechanical…)

Information
“knowledge communicated/received”

Message
meaning conveyed by a signal (stream, sequence…) What is Info? Examples Phonograph

Input Transducer
(microphone, mech. Wave -> Electrical signal)

Tx, channel, Rx, Output Transducer (Electrical signal -> mech. Wave)

Signal -> Sound Waves

Message -> song, speech

Information -> whatever the content conveys to the listener Camera

image recording Telephone Fidelity
a measure of closeness to the original

Info content (vs. single note repeated, and/or noise)

Bit
unit of information

Data rate (vs. info rate)

Analog/Continuous vs. Digital/Discrete Representing/Quantifying Info Audio and Imaging
Data compression
Data transmission
Representation of numbers
Error detection & correction coding
Etc.

Information Technology Revolution -> 3 stages…

1950 - transistor
1980 - PC
1990 - WEB
...and this is just beginning!


V. Wide Bandwidth
satellites, wired/wireless, optical fibers,
cell technology, 4G... 1940’s
transistor (Bell Labs)
(Schockley, Brattain, Bardeen)

1950’s
pager (hospitals, factories)
Fortran
Floppy disk (Japanese patent )
Modem (Bell Labs)
IC (TI – Jack Kilby) 1960’s
DEC/PDP
IBM/360 – standard business computer
Laser, BASIC
Optical Fiber (65K phone conversation -> 5M)
Wordprocessor + mouse (pointing device)

1968
Intel incorporates (Grove, Noyce, Moore) 1970’s
1st packet calculator (TI10)1st Intel microprocessor
(4004, computer on a chip)
Unix – developed at Bell Labs (Ritchie, Thomson)@ , 1st e-mail - Ray Tomlinson

1976
1st PC (Altair 8800)

1976
Apple I (just a circuit board) 1977
Apple II announced (Steve Jobs & Steve Wozniak incorporate Apple Computers)





1977
Bill Gates & Paul Allen found Microsoft 1977 – PCs from Tandy and Commodore (built-in monitors, i.e. no TV hookup)

1978 - Wordstar I word processor (CP/M system)

1978 – 1st Intel’s 16-bit processor, 8086 debuts

1979 – 1st electronic spreadsheet “VisiCalc”
- Cell Phones tested (Japan, Chicago)
- “Portable” (24lb) computer The Osborne I

1979 - PC-DOS from Microsoft selected by IBM for PC 1980 – 1st open-architecture
IBM PC launched (desktop
computing going mainstream)
… start of PC cloning…
1982 – Lotus 1-2-3 (revolutionary -
pie charts & bar graphs)
1982 – The CD-ROM (Sony & Philips)
1983 – Apple Lisa -> mouse, icons, pulldown menus
1984 – Macintosh 1984 – Motorola MC68020 (250K transistors)
Intel’s 16-bit 80286 chip (IBM PC/AT)
1985 – Windows 1.0 (Macintosh-like….)
1985 – Intel’s 80386 chip (32-bit, w/on-chip
memory management)
(IBM PS/2, 16MHz, 2Mb memory….)
1989 – Intel’s 80486 (1.2M transistors)
1989 – WWW project proposed to CERN
1989 – Windows 3.0 (legal dispute with Apple over
“look & feel” resemblance to Mac) 1990 – www (hypertext) + URLs, HTML & HTTP
1992 – “Michelangelo” virus (little actual damage)
1992 – 1st audio multicast transmitted over the Net
1993 - 1st PDA (Apple Newton –
stylus + handwriting recognition)
1993 – Intel’s Pentium (80586)
1993 – U. of Illinois – GUI for Internet navigation
“Mosaic”
1994 – Netscape Communications
(originally Mosaic Comm.)
1st “Netscape” browser -> WEB surfing... 1995 – Java/Sun Microsystems -> applets
1995 – “Toy Story” 1st full-length movie
completely computer generated
1995 – Windows 95
1995 – HDTV -> DTV….
1997 – Palm Pilot
1997 – Mars Images sent to Earth (Pathfinder) 2000's

wireless

Memory Sticks/storage

audio/video streaming

USB

Tablet PC

Hybrid Technology 2007

3GHz

Memory -> ∞

HD, on demand TV

packet-switched telephony

iPhone

… 2008 - Present
New Gen Microprocessors

RFID

OLED Displays

Nano

Movies -> bypassing actors

Cloud

NFC

Google Wallet Car of the future Brings about dramatic changes in
Production, Distribution, Life styles, …

Essential Contribution
Expansion of knowledge
Reduction in uncertainty

Centers on data:
Collection
Storage
Transmission
Analysis
Presentation IT Revolution Changes in:
Public, corporate and personal worlds

Affects
Local economies
Travel patterns
Agriculture
Architecture
Social and political changes Real-time information
Inventory update @ checkout counter
“just-in-time delivery” inventory management
CAD
Boeing 777
Textile -> quick pattern changes -> remote (oversees)
sawing/cutting machines reprogramming

Economic activities
Globalization..
How it is organized, Where it is located
The kind of jobs it generates
Telecommuting, “Telecenters”, “hoteling” of workspaces
Mobile office (aka “car”)
Outsourcing (ex. Processing of claims in India…)
Distant learning, Tele/video conferencing
Job polarization -> high-tech vs. “McJobs”, fewer between… Technology
Satellite TV, GPS, Cell Technology
Switched packets, streaming audio/video
Internet/WEB search engines, databases…
E-commerce, PC-Banking

Public Sector Management
Government
National Planning (ex. Land/water use)
IRS (“monitoring” our $$$) Agriculture
Crop records -> computer database
Monitoring, blight warning
Satellite yield monitor
Weather
Remote sensing
Computer controlled irrigation…

Health
Biotechnology (ex. Genome mapping)
Computer-aided diagnosis
Remote surgical procedures
Ultrasound imaging, lithotripsy
Monitoring epidemics (quick access to medical info)
“printing” of body parts IT Revolution Impacts Historical Highlights Social changes brought by TV
Avg. household – TV on 7hrs/day
Greater knowledge of world events
Attitudes altered by TV footage (Iraq war, Iran…)
Influences/reflects society (ex. Places of women)
Diminished regional differences (more common attitudes)
Copycat behavior (violent/dangerous)
Unattainable ideals of beauty, wealth, success, family, career -> depression, eating disorders etc.
Use of media for extremists political objectives (political assassinations may be encouraged by publicity they receive)
Sharp drop in # of daily newspapers

Political effects
Radio/TV to reach every home -> effective means to gain political objective (Hitler, FDR, Churchill; JFK used his charm/good looks to his advantage on TV during debates) Transportation (use of radar, sonar, radio, GPS…)
Air traffic control
Shipping/trucking
Taxi…
Future: automobile traffic flow (optimum routes based on traffic density, speed etc)

Manufacturing
Automation/robotics
Improved productivity
Ex. Automobile plant: each car custom made..

Service industries:
Mail: zip codes (machine read)
Criminal justice: fingerprint/DNA matching, “home arrests” bracelets
Health care: speech synthesis, reading machines for the blind, hearing aids…
Banking New technologies

Must match characteristics and capabilities of the human user (ex. Size of a keyboard, cell phone… could be built much smaller)

Should be well thought out: once technology in use, it is difficult /impossible to implement changes (ex. Area codes, metric system in US, stethoscope)

Must anticipate consequences (ex. X-rays, can be harmful, power lines, radiation of cell phones etc.)New technologies

Must match characteristics and capabilities of the human user (ex. Size of a keyboard, cell phone… could be built much smaller)

Should be well thought out: once technology in use, it is difficult /impossible to implement changes (ex. Area codes, metric system in US, stethoscope)

Must anticipate consequences (ex. X-rays, can be harmful, power lines, radiation of cell phones etc.) Google Glasses Augmented Reality Looking into Digital http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4482727
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