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Transcript of Khilafat Movement
The Khilafat Movement was started due to the British breaking their promise to the Muslims that if they helped the British in the War, no harm would befall Turkey, yet that promise was not kept.
Turkey was to be split as every other War spoil and the British were to be claiming a part for themselves also.
This outraged the Muslims, as they had not only been cheated, but were also being mocked by the British.
Why the Khilafat Movement ended?
How successful was the Khilafat Movement in advancing the cause of Pakistan Movement?
created political consciousness among Indian Muslims
inspired them to constitute another movement for independence
thus; started the Pakistan Movement
How Successful Was the Khilafat Movement in advancing the cause of Pakistan Movement?
Omar Kidwai, Abdullah Siddiqi, Saif Husain, Essa Tabish
How was the Khilafat Movement Advanced?
In December 1919 both the Khilafat Committee and Congress held their meetings simultaneously at Amritsar and a delegation was prepared which was sent to England under the leadership of Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar to see the British Prime Minister, Cabinet Member and Members of Parliament and to explain the Indian point of view regarding the Khilafat. The delegation visited England in 1920. The leaders of the delegation addressed the House of Commons and saw the British Prime Minister, Lloyd George who paid no heed to the delegations demand. The delegation stayed at London for eight months and won many hearts and sympathies of people in Britain delivering speeches. However, the delegation returned to India unsuccessful in October 1920.
Now that the Muslims were provoked into taking action against the British injustice, other falsehoods of the British became more prominent and more and more people supported the movement, even the Hindus.
Gandhi also supported the Movement for a short period of time, yet retreated when the British started an aggressive approach to the Movement.
How and Who started it?
The Khilafat movement was started by Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, both brothers, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Hasrat Mohani and Dr. Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari.
It was started in 1919 to support the Ottoman Caliphate and was short lived, ending in 1924
After the unsuccessful visit to England the leaders of the Khilafat Movement realized the fact that the British were not in the mood to help them. Therefore, they realized that a new strategy needed to be adopted in order to reinvigorate the zest and zeal for freedom among a general populace. With this aim they decided to launch a movement of Non-Cooperation. When the leaders of the Khilafat announced the Movement, the congress extended its full support to the Khilafat Movement. The leaders of the two met at Amritsar and resolved to launch a country wide agitation under the leadership of Mr.Gandhi.
Migration to Afghanistan
Under the hypnotism of Mr. Gandhi, Muslim ulama had issued a verdict and declared India as Dar-ul-Harab and the Muslims therefore needed to migrate to some other country or Dar-ul-Salam. Thousands of families sold out their properties for a tenth of their value and hastily left for Afghanistan, in August 1920. As many as eighteen thousand people marched towards Afghanistan, which was unable to bear the influx of the people. Thus, the Afghan authorities closed their frontiers. Eventually the Muhajarins had to return to their homes. A great number of old man, women and children died on their way during returning to homes and those who luckily reach alive their former places. They found themselves homeless and penniless. In fact they faced great difficulties. Even the preachers of Khilafat Movement realized the fact.
The Khilafat Movement failed to achieve its goals. One of the main reasons for the failure of the Khilafat Movement was that the main leader of the Khilafat Movement, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar was arrested and imprisoned. The Hijrah Movement also failed. The Emigrants found themselves in a crisis when they returned back. They became busier in settling themselves than on paying attention to the Movement.
Chauri Chaura Incident
Secondly, the Chauri Chaura incident, in which a lot of policemen were burnt to death, frightened Gandhi who immediately called off the Non-cooperation Campaign. This really annoyed the Muslims as it took off the pressure from the British.
Thirdly, the Turks themselves abolished the caliphate as they too wanted Turkey to be a nation instead of an empire. Kamal Attaturk took control of Turkey and abolished the system of Caliphate. Hence there was no point in continuing a movement which had been destroyed the Turks themselves but it was still a devastating blow for millions of Muslims.
How it led to Pakistan Movement
made muslims realize they has political power
realized they could deman for their rights
realized they were not the 'pets' of the british
ultimately boosted confidence
The Khilafat Movement advanced the cause of the Pakistan Movement to an extent because apart from showing them what they could do and boosting their confidence, it also lowered the confidence of some and made them scared due to incidents like Chauri Chaura.