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Skeletal System

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by

Jane Bohlander

on 2 November 2016

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Transcript of Skeletal System

Support
Functions
Storage
Calcium
Types of Bones
Long
Humerus
Short
Carpals
Flat
Frontal bone
Irregular
Vertebrae
Structure of Long Bones
Diaphysis: hard compact bone
Articular cartilage
Periosteum: fibrous membrane
Endosteum: membrane lining medullary cavity
Epiphyses: ends; spongy bone
Medullary cavity: hollow
Skeleton
Types of Bone
Microscopic
bone
Microscopic cartilage
Bone Growth
Compact Bone
hard and dense
Spongy Bone
Porous
Osteons
Osteocytes
More matrix than cells
Matrix is more like a firm gel than solid like bone
Description
Structure
Chondrocytes
Osteoblasts = bone-forming cells
Two cells types constantly and continually "scuplt" bones
Endochondral Ossification
Most bones start as cartilage
Forming Bones
Ossification
Epiphyseal plate
As long a epiphyseal plate remains, bone growth continues.
When all cartialge is gone, growth stops
Epipyseal line marks where two ossification centers met
Bones
Interior
Exterior
Shape
Skeletal System
Divisions of Skeleton
Joints
Differences in Genders
Axial Skeleton
Skull
28 bones
Cranium
Frontal
Facial Bones
Nasal
Ear Bones
Malleus
Incus
Stapes
Fontanels
Cranium Potpopurri
Sinuses - spaces or cavities within cranium bones (4 pairs)
Sutures
Lacrimal
Occipital
Spine
(Vertebral Column)
series of separate bones connected to form a flexible curved rod
5 Regions
Cervical
4 Curves
Cervical
Functions:
Vertebrae
Thorax
12 pairs of ribs
Ribs
True Ribs
Pairs 1-7
Posterior attachment
False Ribs
Pairs 8, 9, 10
Floating Ribs
Not attached to costal cartilage
Appendicular Skeleton
Upper
Extremity
Pectoral Girdle
Scapula
Arm
Humerus - proximal end held in place/allowed to move by group of muscles called rotator cuff
Ulna - articulates with humerus at proximal end and radius at distal end
Radius - articulates with ulna at proximal end and with the carpals at the distal end
Wrist & Hand
Upper Exremity
Wrist:
Carpals (8)
Lower
Extremity
Pelvic Girdle
(aka hip)
Coxal (pelvic) bones
Leg
Femur - longest bone in the body; articulates proximally with the coxal and distally with the tibia and patella
Stability
Patella - kneecap
Ankle & Foot
Ankle
Tarsals (7)
Lower Extremity
Size
No real functional reason
Pelvis/Coxal
Male hip bones are usually larger
but...
Male hipbones are narrower
Why?
Synarthrosis
Joints that join bones with fibrous connective tissue
No Movement
Sutures
Slight Movement
Amphiarthroses
Cartilage connects the articulating bones
symphysis pubis
Joints between vertebrae = allow trunk to flex forward or sideways and rotate/circumduct
Diarthroses
Freely Moveable
Structure
joint capsule
Basic Parts
Joint capsule
Made from fibrous connective tissue
Joint Cavity
Articular Cartilage
Covers ends of bones
Space inside joint capsule
Attaches to bone shaft, forming the periosteum
Ball-and-Socket
Hinge
Pivot
Saddle
Gliding
Condyloid
Structure
Ball shaped head of one bone fits into concave socket of another
Location
Movement
shoulder
Widest range of movements
forward
backward
out
in
circular
Location
Movement
Location
Location
Location
Movement
Movement
Movement
Location
Movement
Structure
Structure
Structure
Structure
Structure
Like hinges on a door
Elbow
Knee
Fingers
Bending and extending
Small projection of one bone pivots in an arch of another bone
1st two cervical vertebra
rotating
opposing surfaces are reciprocally concave-convex
Only 2 (one pair) in the entire body - between the metacarpal bone of each thumb and carpal bone of the wrist
bend - extend
in - out
circular
no rotation
flat surfaces that "glide' over each other
"tight" joint capsule
between vertebrae
least moveable
an oval project (condyle) that fits into an elliptical socket
radius and carpal bones
bend - extend
side-to-side (slight)
Supporting framework
Protection
Bones protect what's inside
Hematopoiesis
Making blood cells
Soft tissue "hangs" off skeleton
Bones (especially long bones) protect?
Breastbone/ribs protect?
Skull protects?
Movement
Muscles pull on bones and allow movement
Blood calcium homeostasis
Femur
Sacrum
Osteoclasts = bone-resorbing cells
Athletes/dancers often have stronger bones than less active people
Respond to stress or injury by changing size, shape, and density of bone
Ossification starts in both epiphyses and the diaphysis
appears solid to naked eye
trabeculae
Many spaces filled with marrow
Central canal
Concentric lamella
Osteons (aka Haversian systems)
Nutrients travel from blood vessel to osteocytes
Canaliculi
Llacunae
Cartilage repairs/rebuilds slowly!
No blood vessels
In lacunae
mucous membranes
Fuse together by around age 2
Birth
Mandible
Zygomatic
Maxilla
Vomer
Inferior nasal concha
Palatine
Temporal
Parietal
Ethmoid
Spehnoid
Reverse curves
Newborn
Development
balance
support
thoracic vertebrae
sternum (breastbone)
Anterior attachment
Attached to sternum by costal cartilage
Attached to cartilage of 7th rib
Not attached anteriorly
Seem to "float" free
Clavicle
In the anatomical position, the ulna is medial to the radius
Fingers:
Phalanges (14)
Palm:
Metacarpals (5)
3 bones in an infant
ilium, ischium, pubis
Fibula - non-weight-bearing along lateral side of lower leg
Tibia (shinbone)
Toes
Phalanges (14)
Foot
Metatarsals (5)
Foot Shapes
Foot bones form lengthwise and crosswise arches
Medial longitudinal
Transverse/metatarsal
Lateral longitudinal
Angle, formed by junction of two pubic bones, is wider in a female.
Female pelvic inlet/outlet are usually wider
Coccyx
Sacrum
Lumbar
Thoracic
Pelvic
Lumbar
Thoracic
articular cartilage
joint cavity
Allows movement at joint
Holds bones together securely
Fits over ends of the two bones
Lined with synovial membrane
Ligaments grow out of periosteum and lash two bones together
Filled with synovial fluid
Between/around ends of joining bones
Synovial fluid
Creates a smooth surface
Absorbs jolts
hip
radius & ulna
ankles
wrists
Full transcript