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The European Renaissance and Reformation

Chapter 14: The Renaissance and Protestant Reformation

Britt Christensen

on 22 March 2018

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Transcript of The European Renaissance and Reformation

The Renaissance began in what country?
Why Italy?
Roman Empire influences (architecture, literature, etc)
Large cities-centers of trade and business ($$$)
Wealthy merchants supported the arts
Rebirth of political, economic, social, and cultural creativity
The Medici Family
Rich supporters of the arts
Gave money to artists so they could create
A New Worldview...
Time of rebirth after the disorder of the medieval world
Focus on experiences HERE and NOW on Earth
Emphasis on individual achievement
Characteristics of Renaissance Art...
Real world subjects, not just religion
New techniques-perspective, shading, realism
Realistic-daily life, landscapes
Strong colors
Renaissance Artists...
Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance man-talented in many areas
Scientist, inventor, artist
The Mona Lisa, The Last Supper
The Mona Lisa: A Self Portrait?
Sculptor, engineer, painter, architect
Mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
St. Peter's Cathedral-model for U.S. Capitol building
Studied da Vinci, Michelangelo
School of Athens-imaginary gathering of great thinkers and scientists
His David was the first major work of Renaissance sculpture
Machiavelli: The Prince
Guide for how rulers should gain and keep power
Use methods necessary to achieve goals
Results are more important than keeping promises
Sometimes a leader must go against the people to achieve goals
Impossible to make everyone happy
William Shakespeare
English poet and playwright
Comedies, tragedies, history plays
Love of words-1,700 words appeared for the first time in his works
Champion, dwindle, tranquil, swagger
Quote Analysis:
Read the quote assigned to you and explain the quote IN YOUR OWN WORDS in the blank space on the paper.
The Prince
Machiavelli Timed Writing:
Respond to the following question in a complete paragraph.
In your opinion, would a ruler today be wise to follow the advice of Machiavelli in The Prince? Explain your opinion, using specific ideas from The Prince discussed in class.
Thesis Statement
2-3 reasons to support and explanation of your reasons
Conclusion Statement
The Protestant Reformation
(16th Century)

At this point in history European history, there is one main church/religion....what is this church/religion?
What is the root word in "Protestant?"
What does it mean to "reform" something?
Abuses in the Catholic Church:
Focus on wars, political power
Popes spent too much money
Selling of
Paying money to reduce time spent in purgatory making up for sins
Martin Luther:
German monk
Led revolt against the Church
Against corruption, worldliness
Founded the Protestant Church
95 Theses-Luther's arguments against the Catholic Church
Saved only through faith
Bible (not clergy) only source of religious truth
Priests, church authorities cannot forgive sins
All Christians have equal access to God
Banned selling of indulgences
Luther's Teachings:
John Calvin:
Followed Luther's example
already determined who would be saved
government led by religious leaders
The Church of England
Henry VIII
Had one daughter with his first wife Catherine of Aragon
Wanted a son (an heir to the throne) but Catherine could no longer have children
Henry wanted a divorce but could not get one...WHY?
Henry VIII
Catholic law did not allow divorce (#1)
So what did Henry VIII do?
-Named himself the head of the Church of England
(#3) Annulled his marriage, married five more times, had only one son
(#2) Took over the English Church from the Pope
(#4) Henry took land from convents/monasteries and gave land to his supporters
Religious Turmoil....
(#5) Henry died in 1547
10 year old son Edward took throne
Edward died in his teens
Mary Tudor (daughter of Henry and his first wife Catherine) took the throne

Question: What religion is Mary Tudor? What do you predict Mary will do with the new Protestant Church of England?
(#6) Mary returned England to Catholic rule
Ordered the deaths of Protestants, earning the nickname "Bloody Mary"
(#7) Mary dies in 1558 and Elizabeth I takes the throne
(#8) Elizabeth orders compromise between Church of England and Catholic Church
(#9) England is officially Protestant
The "Occupy" Movement:
International movement against social and economic inequality
Began in 2011
Activity Instructions:
(Complete on the back of the handout):
1) Skim through the list and summarize some of the "complaints"
2) List strategies (2-3) the movement can use to publicize their grievances and bring attention to the movement
3) Identify the strategy you feel would be most successful and explain WHY.
4) During the videos, write down two reasons given by the protestors to explain their actions.
5) Do you feel the protestors are taking the correct approach to bring attention to their cause? Why or why not?
“Glory…is acquired by having been one against many in counseling an enterprise which success has justified.”
“The great majority of mankind is satisfied with appearances, as though they were realities, and are often even more influenced by the things that seem than by those that are.”
“Few men are brave by nature, but good discipline and experience make many so.”
“There is no better indication of a man’s character than the company which he keeps.”
“When the very safety of the country depends upon the resolution to be taken, no considerations of justice or injustice, humanity or cruelty, nor glory or of shame, should be allowed to prevail. But putting all other considerations aside, the only question should be, “What course will save the life and liberty of the country?”
“Fortune is the ruler in half our actions, but…she allows the other half or thereabouts to be governed by us.”
“Hatred is gained as much by good works as by evil.”
“Men only judge matters by the result.”
“In the actions of men, the ends justify the means.”
“A man who wishes to make a profession of goodness in everything must necessarily come to grief among so many who are not good. Therefore it is necessary for a prince, who wishes to maintain himself, to learn how not to be good, and to use this knowledge and not use it, according to the necessity of the case.”
“A prince who fails to punish evil-doers so that they shall not be able to do any more harm will be regarded as either ignorant or cowardly.”
“A prince need trouble little about conspiracies when the people are well disposed, but when they are hostile and hold him in hatred, then he must fear everything and everybody.”
Martin Luther Quiz:
1) What was the name of the document posted by Martin Luther?
2) What was ONE PROBLEM in the Catholic Church identified by Martin Luther.
3) Identify ONE specific teaching of Martin Luther.
4) How did the Catholic Church respond to Martin Luther's actions?
5) Identify one LONG TERM EFFECT of Martin Luther's actions.

Read the information about your assigned wife of Henry VIII. Mark any important information as you read. Focus on answers to the questions:
1) Why did Henry marry her?
2) Did they have any children?
3) What problems existed in the marriage?
4) How/why did their marriage end?
Effects of the "Printing Revolution"
Print shops in over 200 cities in Europe
Books became cheaper
Books were printed in different languages
Spread of knowledge
Accuracy of books improved
First copyright laws
Books on many different subjects were available
Books with title pages, indexes, maps, etc.
Books written in vernacular
More people learned to read
Newspapers were published
Standardized spelling and grammar
Development of modern science
Scientists could use the work of others to speed investigations
Decline in the use of Latin
Everyday spoken language
In your opinion, would a ruler today be wise to follow the advice of Machiavelli in The Prince?
I. Thesis-Respond to the prompt
A. Reason #1
1. Explain the reason
2. Explain how the reason supports your thesis
B. Reason #2
1. Explain the reason
2. Explain how the reason supports your thesis
C. Reason #3
1. Explain the reason
2. Explain how the reason supports your thesis
II. Conclusion Statement
Ability to read and understand the writings of the ancient world
Learn beyond just traditional Church teachings
Participation in public affairs; improve the world through an active life
Use and apply human wisdom to better society
Humanism in practice?
Building of libraries and universities
Poetry and drama without religious themes
Practical education-Latin, Greek, math, music, philosophy
Education for both rich and poor students
Financial support for artists and writers
Effects of Humanism
Restoration of Greek and Roman heritage
New ways to study the world
Using the past to explain the present
Rise of vernacular-everyday language
Common educational system
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