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oversea

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WONG WAI HO

on 8 April 2014

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Transcript of oversea

Structure of Bank of China
Truss Frame
Columns
Transfer Truss
Slab
Atrium
Shear Tube
Elements:
Truss Frame
Diagonal & orthogonal trusses
Tensional Force
Compressional Force
Materials:
4 Steel plates filled with concrete
Loading Transfer
Loading transfer on truss
Loading Transfer
Loading transfer on truss
Columns
5 Main columns
Composite concrete &
steel
COLUMNS
TRUSS
ATRIUM
Columns
STORY 25
Out-rigger
Every 13 floors
Transfer loads
7 parts
4.5m
100mm
Source: www.engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis/portfolios/2010/brb5019/Reports/Structural%20Tech%201_Public.pdf
Reinforced
Concrete pad
Floor system

Lateral system

NEW YORK TIMES BUILDING
CASE STUDIES
Local case-
The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation

local case-
Bank of China ( Hong Kong)

CLIMATE
BUILDING INFORMATION
FOUNDATION
STRUCTURE
SPACE PLANNING
CLIMATE
BUILDING INFORMATION
STRUCTURE
SPACE PLANNING
BUILDING INFORMATION
FOUNDATION
FOUNDATION
SUPERSTRUCTURE
SPACE PLANNING
Lateral Resisting Systems - HSBC
wind load
wind load
Two story high cross braces were placed every five to seven stories on the inside of the building with the addition of a few three story high cross braces
Three-story high cross braces are located on both ends of the inner atrium and provide additional North-South stabilization
Outlook of HSBC
HSBC
Typical braced frame with many columns to support the weight
Design Concept

Lateral Resisting Systems - BOC
Only eight steel columns on two sides in order to increase the flexibility of office space
Vertical circulation put at the corner and around the columns to fulfill the fire regulation in 30m escape distance (36m max. Now)
wind load
wind load
Sources from: http://uscaau.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/hsbc-strucural-diagram-copy.jpg
STRUCTURAL LAYOUT
Component of under ground
Structural grid - Basement
Soil type v.s. Foundation type
Non-cohesive
Cohesive

Intermediate
Bedrock
Pad /Raft
Strip /Raft

Skin-friction
End-bearing

Shallow Foundation
Deep Foundation
There are eight group of columns. Each group contains 4 columns
The span of the columns is 30m and 10m
Vertical structural columns
WIND LOAD
STRUCTURAL LAYOUT
Under 51 story, four story high cross braces were placed every four stories, above 51 story, the single braces will replace the cross braces.
Structural grid - Office
AVERAGE WIND SPEED

Wind loads are mainly in the East/West direction
Base shear of 9336 kips
Overturning moment of 3.7 million ft-kips
SEISMIC LOAD

Climate Consideration
The base shear was determined to be 1834 kips (calculated base from the New York City Building Code)

Calculated from the effective seismic weight (the assumed dead loads and partition loads)

The seismic forces at each level increase with elevation and range from 1.1 kips to 94 kips
http://www.weather-and-climate.com/
CHOISE OF LAYOUT
Deep foundation
- Hand-dug Caisson
- 32 reinforced concrete piles

Total deep : 34 m

Diaphragm wall
- 1m thick

A tunnel was also dug out to the
waterfront so as to run plumbing for the
chilled water system

Hong Kong is in coastal area and typhoon area.
HSBC - Caisson Foundation
Interior design
dimensions of core and shell influenced by Interior layout

Corner notches
help to engage the city sidewalk with the building

Deep foundation
- Hand-dug Caisson
4 no. of 9m of diameter
110 no. of intermediate

Diaphragm wall
1m thick

Rock anchor
To
STRENGTHEN
the foundation to prevent overturning of the building.

Source: Millias, Building structure, ch10 p.333

Bank of China - Caisson Foundation
40'
Subsoil
E.g. gravel & sand ( non-cohesive), silts & clay (cohesive), Intermediate soil (decomposed granite & volcanic)






Topsoil
Bedrock
E.g. Granite, limestone
CORE LOCATION
Central core

Maximum view
Minimum circulation space
shorter distance from lift lobby to office
higher floor plan efficiency


LATERAL SYSTEM

A centralized steel braced frame core with outriggers (Levels 28 and 51)

Concentric braces behind elevator shafts ; Eccentric braces at elevator lobby entrance

Sufficient for strength

LATERAL SYSTEM

TYPE OF STRUCTURE
Exposed steel structure
Columns in four corner notches are exposed from building envelope

visible skeleton structure from transparent facade
maximizes useable space

40'
35'
35'
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
New construction method of caisson foundation


Use vibro hammer to casting
Drill a big hole
Put the steel cage into the bottle
Fill the concrete
Use vibro hammer to put out the casting
Advantages & Disadvantages



-Economics
-Minimizes pile cap needs
-Slightly less noise and reduced vibrations
-Easily adaptable to varying site conditions
-High axial and lateral loading capacity


-Not good for contaminated sites
-Lack of construction expertise
-Lack of Qualified Inspectors

source:www.lera.com
source: google map
Hand-dug caisson
Simple
Low cost
No. of pile work at same times
Requires little work space
Can work at steep slope
drawback
dangerous for workers
has banned in 1998 due to high accident rate

however...can use:
under special condition with approval

Exposed X-brace system consists of pairs of high-strength rods

Ability to utilize exoskeleton made structure more efficient

Minimized size of core columns

 Commercial Building

 Ieoh Ming Pei

 Robertson, Fowler & Associates

No.1, Garden Road, Central

1989

305.1048 m

72

135,000 m²

47

Steel Framed Structure (Truss Frame)

 Glass
 Steel
 Aluminium
 Granite
Reinforced Concrete

Background
Building Type
Structural Types
Materials
Architect
Structural Engineer
Location
Construction Completed
Building Height
(To Roof)
Floor Count
Floor Area
Elevators


In this situation,
The building should be designed to
at least
to withstand the strong wind speed of
220km/hr
.

Source: Hong Kong OBSERVATORY http://www.hko.gov.hk

Source: Denise Tang(2013)GRANITES AND VOLCANIC ROCKS – KNOWING OUR VIOLENT GEOLOGICAL PAST

volcanic rocks & granites (bedrock)
In the shallow level in some places

Combines typical
spread footings
with
caissons
to achieve its maximum axial capacity.






Foundation Selection
Span & Slab
Design Concept & Consideration
Form: Bamboos
Frame: Diamonds

Shallow Foundation
Pad foundation
> 3m depth


Hurricane force wind
Increasing Gale or storm force wind
Gale or storm force wind
Strong wind
Standby
Stronger rocks (blue color)
21 of the columns : spread footings

Other 7 columns: (Red color)
600mm concrete-filled steel caisson

Cantilevered areas : (Green color)
not directly transfer load to the ground
(no need of foundations)
The tower mostly bear on rock (with a capacity of 20 - 40 ton per square foot)


Floor system

Lateral system

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
Core
The rock at the southeast corner of the tower only had an 8 ton per square foot capacity
Wind speed
118
km/hr &
max. 220
km/hr
63-117
km/hr &
max. 180
km/hr
FLOOR SYSTEM
41-62 km/hr & max.110 km/hr
Construction method

Dig trenches for the footings
Build the forms

Dump gravel, sand or crushed rocks onto the foundation space
Install the vapor barrier and lay wire mesh and rebar over it
Mix concrete and pour the foundation and Embed foundation anchors in the wet cement.
-Eliminating internal column for vertical support
- Create a diff. floor plate & overall build form
- Leaving more space in planning
- Increasing the flexibility of office planning

Advantages & Disadvantages

No special equipments required
More economical if competent soil is available
Materials used are concrete and easily available
Construction procedure is simple.



Not suitable for very compressible soils
Cannot be used in uncontrolled fills
Require stable excavations to form foundation elements


Steel framing
2 ½” NW composite slab on 3” metal deck
40’ typical spans to optimize interior layout
© Thornton Tomasetti 2005
Structure




Design Concept
Mass 1/4
Geotechnical condition in Hong Kong
40'
Single, Triangle prism
LATERAL SYSTEM
Core braced frame
Concentric braces behind elevator shafts
Eccentric braces at elevator lobby entrances
© Thornton Tomasetti 2005
LATERAL SYSTEM
Outriggers at two levels
All columns of tower are engaged in lateral system
Located at midheight and top level mechanical rooms
© Thornton Tomasetti 2005
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
1. Efficient design of lateral system

2. Design of exposed structure

3. Mast

LATERAL RESISTING SYSTEMS
Utilize expressed structure to engage additional gravity columns

Provide 'bonus' redundancy for extreme loading condition
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Efficient design of lateral system
STORY 4
STORY 38
STORY 51 &52
Core braced frame with outriggers
Sufficient for strength
Large deflections and accelerations (> 40 milling) do not satisfy comfort criteria

Outriggers
Steel frame structure

Structure of HSBC

Steel braced frame core with outriggers

Exposed X-brace system
Atrium & Shear Tube
Atrium
Story 6-25
No central column
Loads transfer by
Shear tube
4 corner columns
Shear Tube
Story 4-17
Stone Concrete
250mm thick
Transfer loads
ELEVATION
SECTION
Zoning
Mainly separate into 2
Different core at diff. floor
Separate core story 51&52
Non-structural wall
From story 20-70
Supported by columns
Structural core
From story 4-17
350mm stone concrete
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
PLAN & STRUCTURE
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Efficient design of lateral system
Construction Details
New techniques from moving material to a height never before achieved outside of the USA
Glazing the largest 25mm thick pattern cut lights ever produced
Utilize expressed structure to engage additional gravity columns
Provides ‘bonus’ redundancy for extreme loading conditions

Structural grid and spanning
Three layer of HSBC

Steel truss structure
The truss used to support 6- 7 floors of loading
Some group of trusses in south, north and center located in different floor which created three layer in HSBC

The floor planes are framed by a ‘series of primary and secondary beams, decked with steel and topped with 150mm thick reinforced-concrete slab
4m clear height


Floor Planes
There is a unique suspension hangar located at the ends of each module which carries the loads up, rather than down.
These loads are transferred upwards to the truss system and then taken down through the masts.
Load Transfer Path
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Efficient design of lateral system
Minimum size of core column, more efficient architectural layout

STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Design of exposed structure
Exposed columns are builtupbox columns
Web plate was varied to provide additional area for strength/stiffness without compromising overall profile
Sources from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Mast
Steel pipe tapers from 8’0”diameter at base to 8” at top
Rolled in half pipes and welded together in shop
Fatigue sensitive details
Erected in three segments (bolted splice connections)
Building Type :
Architect :
Structural engineer :
Location :

Completed year :
Building Height :
(to Roof)
Floor to floor height:
Floor count :
Floor area :
Capacity :
Structure :
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Commercial offices
Norman Foster and Partners
Ove Arup & Partners
Cleveland Bridge Ltd 1
Queen's Road, Central, Hong Kong
1986
183 m

4m
44
99,000 m2(1,065,627 sq ft)
8800
Steel frame structure
(Exoskeleton steel Truss)
Mast
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
source:www.lera.com
source: google map

 Commercial Building

Renzo Piano

 Thornton Tornasetti

620 Eighth Avenue, New York

2007

319 m

52

143, 000 m²

52

Steel Framed Structure

 Glass
 Steel

Background
Building Type
Structural Types
Materials
Architect
Structural Engineer
Location
Construction Completed
Building Height
Floor Count
Floor Area
Elevators
4.5m
Construction method

Loading transfer from
hangar > slab > truss >column

Suspension hangar
Column
Multiple of identical Item
Easy to construct
Simple connections
Prefabrication
Save cost

Cladding
Similar modular
Mass production  save cost
Simple assembly
Prefabrication
Save cost

2 Floor deep truss
2.5m width@
all diagram from general:
1) columns
2)beam
3)core
4)grid
5)dimension
End of the ppt, comparing adv vs disadv of diff stru
Accessibility
3
elevated highway
surrounds






Soil condition
Many boulders
Foundation changes from
bored piles
to
hand-dug caisson

Site condition - Bank of China
e
Full transcript