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How does motivation direct human behavior?

Ron Cook

on 15 August 2016

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Transcript of MOTIVATION

4 Theories of Motivation
Drive Reduction
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Instinct Theory
Arousal Theory
Motives--are desired goals
Possibly the key component
to human experience
Motivation is result of biology and genetics---
So then are all members of a species designed for
the same motivations?
The urge for an optimum level
of stimulation
the factors that direct and
energize the behavior of
humans and other
Drive Reduction Theory
Inner pushes & external pulls
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Some motives are more basic & therefore
more compelling
Inborn patterns
of behavior
that are biologically
determined---consistent throughout a species
Evolutionary Psychology
behavior is evolutionary
based upon natural selection
Drive-Reduction Theory
When an organism lacks some basic biological need (food, water) a drive to acquire the need is created
Primary Drives
biological needs--hunger, thirst, sleep, sex..
primary reinforcers, unconditioned stimuli
Secondary Drives
No obvious biological need---
brought about by experiences & learning---Such as grades, money, careers--secondary reinforcers, conditioned stimuli
When an animal or human attempts to keep an optimum level of internal biological functioning
a reward---positive or negative
a stimulus that produces stimulation
Conditioned stimulus, Secondary reward
Incentive Theory
An attempt to explain why behavior is not
always biological or internally motivated
Contribution of the Arousal Theory
Some animals explore
for no reason
"Because it is there"
Opponent-Process Theory
stimuli that initially increases
arousal later produce an opposite effect on the nervous system
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
(page 2 of study guide)
form of sugar that circulates in the blood & provides a major source of energy to body tissues--when it is low, we are hungry
hunger control, linked
to emotion control & rewards
weight thermostat
The hypothalamus alters the
body weight level
the point at which an individual's
"weight thermostat" is set---when the body falls below this weight, then hunger increases
Basal Metabolic Rate
the amount of energy
expended daily by humans
at rest--the number of
calories you would burn
if you stayed in bed all day
Appetite Hormones
secreted by the pancreas--controls glucose
Protein secreted by fat cells, when there is too much metabolism increases, too little, hunger increases
Hypothalamus secretes this hormone and
it is initiated by hunger
an empty stomach secretes this amino acid
increases before meals, decreases after meals
This peptide is a digestive hormone, tells
the brain "not hungry"
Psychological & Cultural influences on hunger
Bulimia Nervosa
significantly underweight--
Weight loss is an obsession
15% or more underweight
Cultural Influences & Weight
89% of women want to lose weight
Women begin to hate their weight
& bodies at an early age
Sexual Motivation
Sexual pleasure assures
Kinsey Report
In the late 1940s & early 1950s--surveyed suburban, white folks to gather data about sexuality, sexual behavior, and attitudes---questions about bisexuality, first sexual encounter, extramarital sex, fantasies, homosexuality
Masters & Johnson
Laboratory tested sexual encounters
videoed in excess of 10,000 beginning in the 1950s and continuing until the 1990s---Washington University in St. Louis & researched the human sexual response and treatment of sexual disorders
Excitement---genital areas flooded with blood
Plateau---breathing increases, blood pressure increases
Orgasm---reinforces intercourse, controlled by the
autonomic nervous system
Resolution---return to normal, release of endorphins
Refractory period--from minutes to days--the recovery phase after orgasm
Any problem that impairs sexual functioning or arousal
$84 Billion annually
Physical & Psychological problems impacting blood flow
Alcoholism--Drugs, antidepressants, prescription drugs
Anxiety, cognitive interference
Interpersonal--anger, resentment, conflict
Estrogen--the primary female sex hormone
highest level in women of reproductive age
& are significant in the development of secondary sexual characteristics--produced by the ovaries
the principal male sex hormone---stimulates growth of sex organs--produced by testes
External Stimuli
External Stimuli
Men much more likely to aroused
when they see, hear, & read erotic material
Sexual initiation
Males much more likely
to initiate sexual activity
Misattribution---confusion or an error
whereby a person misinterprets what is
said or done
Imagined Stimuli---
the brain is the most significant sex organ
*80% of teen pregnancies unplanned
*Nearly 25% of teen moms have 2nd child in 2 years
*$7 billion spent annually aiding teen moms
*367,678 15-19 year olds become pregnant every year
*in 2010 15-19 year old births were the lowest in 10 years
Sexual Orientation
attraction towards members of a particular group
Ignorance---Poor birth control practice or lack of preparedness
Guilt related to Sexual activity---lack of planning---passion overwhelms intentions
Minimal communication about birth control---
failure or uncomfortable about discussing sexual issues with partners, parents, or peers
Alcohol USE--Sex & alcohol are directly related
creates judgment problems and eliminates inhibitions--
Mass Media--the "social scripts" of what we see and do--15 sexual acts per hour on TV
4 Factors that predict
sexual restraint
High Intelligence---more focused on achievement
than immediate pleasures
Religiosity--more likely to wait
Father Presence---the link between father in the home & sexual activity
Participation in service learning programs---volunteers & community activities
estimated 4-5% males & 1-2% females
few cause & effect links
*absence of father
*fear or hatred of other gender
*childhood sexual experience
*peer relationships
*dating experiences
personal & cultural roles as well s knowledge in place of ignorance
Increases our ability to survive--develops attachments, aids in reproduction
Social Acceptance
Our self esteem is linked to how we are accepted and valued
denial of belonging--
humans are driven to belong
Work satisfies a
variety of needs
FLOW---when you
engaged and involved in your work--focused
not aware of time or yourself--
Good work enriches life
Personnel Psychology
recruits, selects, places, trains,
develops, & appraises workers
Organizational Psychology
part of Industrial psychology, looks at worker satisfaction & organizational change
selects & trains workers
increases morale &
Personnel psychologists enhance worksite happiness, quality of job experience
Achievement Motivation
Achievement-Motivated People
"Discipline overwhelms talent"
Structured Interview--ask the same questions to all applicants, establish a scale for rating job applicants
the need for achievement
is a distinctive human
motivation---this need can
be separated from all other
needs---Why is there a desire
for significant achievement?
Motivated people work on a problem, they do not leave it to chance. Differentiate between chance & doing nothing--far more successful and highly motivated by social feedback
Thematic Apperception TEST
Sources of Achievement Motivation
Cognitive basis---thinking and applying effort and development of skills and mastery
TAT--test taker makes up a story
about a picture. The response is
then rated on motivation
emotional basis---feeling good about effort and success
Birth order & Achievement
1st born are more aggressive, people pleasers, more likely to need approval of people in charge
Middle children--most likely to be opposite of the oldest, more secretive
Friends & groups more important than family--independent, peacemakers, & inventive
Last born--
good time, love
attention, spoiled,
Cognitive dissonance--can motivate change
Management Techniques
Extrinsic Motivation
based upon classical and operant
conditioning methods---Modeling behavior
Intrinsic Motivation
Desire to perform
for it's own sake
Challenges & Curiosity Encourage MOTIVATION
Clearly defined goals & provide feedback
task leadership
sets standards and goals--keeps the group focused
Social Leadership
builds teamwork, supports
workers, avoids conflicts
Abraham Maslow
Overload Principle--when the body
is overly stressed--body will adapt
if you do not overload, you will not improve
theory X--workers are inherently lazy, therefore must constantly be watched & monitored
Theory Y---workers are ambitious and self-motivated & use self control. therefore creative, problem solving,
Theory Z---increasing employee loyalty, a career for life, with a strong focus on the well-being of the worker both at work and off---
Promoting stable employment, high morale and satisfaction
Why are some people more successful?
Or why are some people never successful?

Why are some people highly motivated?
Or why are there times you have no motivation?

Where does this energy, this drive, or this direction
come from?
Why do we often lack any energy or drive?

Almost everyone wants to be successful, we want
to have direction and drive---
Or do we?

What is stopping us from getting what we want?

Or is it who is stopping us from getting what we

Sigmund Freud
2 Basic Drives

Humanistic Theory
This is not included in your study guide--however
is this motivation?
Humans are driven to achieve at their
maximum level----
What are the similarities &
the differences between
Evolutionary & Instinct
Theories of Motivation?
Binge & Purge
more common
not necessarily
+ Psychoanalytic Theory
(aka Humanistic Theory)
3 parts of an emotion--
Which is most important? Why?
Autonomic & Sympathetic Nervous System
Arousal & Performance
2 Factor Schacter
Gender Differences
Facial Feedback
Behavior Feedback
February 27, 2015
feel-good, do good
subjective well-being
Is fear more of an emotion or a motivation?

How can physical arousal be both an emotion and
a motivation?

What is the difference between the Instinct Theory
& the Drive Reduction Theory?

Susie loves excelling in school, especially her Psychology class
How does the Psychoanalytic Theory and the Humanistic Theory explain her motivation to do well in Psychology?
Give an example of each level of
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Hunger & Sex
*How are both hunger & sex physiological, cultural,
& emotional?

*What are the differences in Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia?

*Is it really important to study sexual behavior and sexual

*Why teen pregnancy?
March 4, 2015
Hunger, Hypothalamus
Anoexia & Bulimia
Kinsey & Masters & Johnson

Sexual Disorders
Sexual Orientation
Teen Pregnancy


February 16, 2016
Why do intelligent people fail?
1. Lack of motivation.

2. Lack of impulse control.

3. Lack of perseverance.

4. Using the wrong abilities.

5. Inability to translate thought into action.

6. Lack of product orientation.

7. Inability to complete tasks.

8. Failure to initiate.

9. Fear of failure.

10. Procrastination.

11. Misattribution of blame.

12. Excessive self-pity.

13. Excessive dependency.

14. Wallowing in personal difficulties.

15. Distractibility and lack of concentration.

16. Spreading oneself too thin or too thick.

17. Inability to delay gratification.

18. Inability to see the forest for the trees.

19. Lack of balance between critical, analytical thinking and creative, synthetic thinking.

20. Too little or too much self-confidence.

Elbert Hubbard
"The best preparation for good work tomorrow is to do good work today."

Full transcript