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Transcript of Medicine
Class: Equipamentos Biomédicos 2º ano
(EBM 2A - T2) Medicine 1. Medicine
Medicine is the applied science or practice of the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness in human beings. Physicians have many specializations and subspecializations into certain branches of medicine, which are listed below. There are variations from country to country regarding which specialties certain subspecialties are in.
The main branches of medicine are:
•Basic sciences of medicine; this is what every physician is educated in, and some return to in biomedical research.
•Interdisciplinary fields, where different medical specialties are mixed to function in certain occasions.
Internal medicine is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, management and nonsurgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases, either of one particular organ system or of the body as a whole. There are many subspecialities (or subdisciplines) of internal medicine: Anesthesiology (also known as anaesthetics); Cardiology; Critical care medicine; Dermatology; Emergency medicine;
Endocrinology; Family medicine, family practice, general practice or primary care; Gastroenterology; Geriatrics; Haematology; Hepatology; Infectious diseases; Medical Genetics; Nephrology; Neurology ; Obstetrics and gynecology Oncology; Ophthalmology; Pediatrics; Physical medicine and rehabilitation (or physiatry); Podiatric medicine; Preventive medicine; Psychiatry; Pulmonology/Pneumology/Respirology;
Rheumatology; and Sleep medicine. 4. Basic Sciences
Anatomy, Biochemistry, Biomechanics, Biostatistics, Biophysics, Cytology, Embryology, Endocrinology, Epidemiology, Genetics, Histology, Immunology, Medical physics, Microbiology, Molecular biology, Neuroscience, Nutrition science (theoretical focus) and dietetics (practical focus), Pathology, Pharmacology, Photobiology, Physiology, Radiobiology and Toxicology. 6. Education
Medical education and training varies around the world. It typically involves entry level education at a university medical school, followed by a period of supervised practice or internship, and/or residency. This can be followed by postgraduate vocational training. A variety of teaching methods have been employed in medical education, still itself a focus of active research.
Many regulatory authorities require continuing medical education, since knowledge, techniques and medical technology continue to evolve at a rapid rate. The means through which doctors upgrade their medical knowledge include medical journals, seminars, conferences and online programs apart form others. Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais - CEFET-MG 9. Bibliografia:
http://www.youtube.com 2. Clinical practice
In clinical practice, doctors personally assess patients in order to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease using clinical judgment. The doctor-patient relationship typically begins an interaction with an examination of the patient's medical history and medical record, followed a medical interview and a physical examination. Basic diagnostic medical devices (e.g. stethoscope, tongue depressor) are typically used. After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests (e.g. blood tests), take a biopsy, or prescribe pharmaceutical drugs or other therapies. Differential diagnosis methods help to rule out conditions based on the information provided. During the encounter, properly informing the patient of all relevant facts is an important part of the relationship and the development of trust. The medical encounter is then documented in the medical record, which is a legal document in many jurisdictions. The clinical examination involves study of:
•Vital signs including height, weight, body temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiration rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation
•General appearance of the patient and specific indicators of disease (nutritional status, presence of jaundice, pallor or clubbing)
•Head, eye, ear, nose, and throat (HEENT)
•Cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels)
•Respiratory (large airways and lungs)
•Abdomen and rectum
•Genitalia (and pregnancy if the patient is or could be pregnant)
•Musculoskeletal (including spine and extremities)
•Neurological (consciousness, awareness, brain, vision, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nerves)
•Psychiatric (orientation, mental state, evidence of abnormal perception or thought). 3. Branches
Working together as an interdisciplinary team, many highly trained health professionals besides medical practitioners are involved in the delivery of modern health care. Examples include: nurses, emergency medical technicians and paramedics, laboratory scientists, pharmacists, physician assistants, podiatrists physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, radiographers, dietitians, and bioengineers.
A patient admitted to hospital is usually under the care of a specific team based on their main presenting problem, e.g., the Cardiology team, who then may interact with other specialties, e.g., surgical, radiology, to help diagnose or treat the main problem or any subsequent complications/developments. 5. 'Medicine' as a specialty
Internal medicine is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, management and nonsurgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases, either of one particular organ system or of the body as a whole. According to some sources, an emphasis on internal structures is implied. Elsewhere, especially in Commonwealth nations, such specialists are often called physicians. These terms, internist or physician (in the narrow sense, common outside North America), generally exclude practitioners of gynecology and obstetrics, pathology, psychiatry, and especially surgery and its subspecialities.
Because their patients are often seriously ill or require complex investigations, internists do much of their work in hospitals. Formerly, many internists were not subspecialized; such general physicians would see any complex nonsurgical problem; this style of practice has become much less common. In modern urban practice, most internists are subspecialists: that is, they generally limit their medical practice to problems of one organ system or to one particular area of medical knowledge. For example, gastroenterologists and nephrologists specialize respectively in diseases of the gut and the kidneys. Dezembro - 2012
Belo Horizonte - BH 7. Why Medicine? 8. Conclusion
Contemporany medicine applis health, biomedical research and medical tecnology to diagnose and treat injury and disease, typically through medication or sugery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, prostheses, biologics, ionizing radiation and others.