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NEW cat prezi

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ashton pitera

on 3 November 2013

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Transcript of NEW cat prezi

Cat Digestive System
Esophagus:
Runs from the pharynx through the diaphram to the stomach
Liver
Large Intestine
last part of alamentary canal where water and protiens are last absorbeded from the undigested food and carry the unseless waste put of the body
The Mouth:
Stomach:
Defff
Pharynx:
muscular passageway for air and food, better known as the throat
the narrow tube helps easy flow of air and food down to either the digestive or respiratory system
Small Intestine:
Body's major digestive organ extending from the pyloric shinctwe to the ileoceal valve, reaching up to six feet in a living person
Oral Cavity Proper:
Different shaped teeth collaborate to help break down the food
Example: incisors, canine, molars and premolars
Where food is ingested
Mechanically digest food by cutting and crushing it to prepare for swallowing
Bounded laterally and in front by alveolar arches containing the teeth.
Creates the supportive structure for the palates and tongue
Gives a channel to the pharynx

Soft Palate:
Extends posterior from the hard palate to the front of the pharynx
its shape helps connect with the tongue to help produce movements of swallowing or closing
Lingual Frenulum:
Mucous membrane extending beneath the tongue to connect the tongue to the inferior part of the mouth
the short shape restricts the movement of the tongue
extends back to house the main salivary glands of the mouth
Hard Palate:
Forms the anterior part of the mouth
Its curved shape allows a comfortable placement for the tongue when its in its natural position
Uvula:
Vestibule:
Salivary glands
exocrine glands w ducts that secrete salivia
saliva is serous/ mucus fluid
the serous produces the salivary amylase :
breaks down starch into maltose
the mucous helps digestion by moistening and binding the food into a ball of chewed food(bolus)
Teeth:
Mastication:
The mechanical break down of food by chewing the food particles in smaller pieces to swallow
Bolus:
The chewed up particles of food that gets moistened by saliva to form a small ball of food that now can be easily swallowed
Deglution:
The voluntary process of swallowing when your tongue pushes back the ball of food(bolus) to the back of the mouth to allow swallowing
Oropharynx:
posterior to the oral cavity, it helps guide air from the mouth to the larynx
this allows inhaling from the mouth possible because from the larynx, air is moved to the trachea, to then be inhaled by the lungs
Epiglottis:
protects the superior opening of the larynx to prevent food from entering instead of air
It makes a lid over the top of the larynx to prevent food from entering when swallowing
Nasopharynx
Laryngopharynx:
continues to the esophagus
the shape directs food down the esophagus only
TUNICS
1.) Mucosa/ Lumen: inner most layer lining the esophagus
consists of mainly surface epithelial, connective tissue, and smooth muscle tissue

2.) Submucosa: beneath mucosa, consisting of soft tissue layer containging blood vessels, nerve endings, lymph nodules and vessels

3.) Muscularis Externa: muscle layer of smooth muscle layer and an outer longitual layer of smooth muscle cells

4.) Serosa: outermost layer of esophagus wall
single layer of flat serous producing cells, visceral peritoneum, and lining the walls with the parental peritoneum by the mesentery ( a membrane extension)
Anatomy relate to physiology:
The esophagus contains intrinsic nerve impulse (submucosal nerve plexus and myentric) which are part of the autonimic nervous system
this helps regulate the mobility and secretory activity of the GI tract
Peristalsis:
involuntary alternation waves of contraction/ relaxation of the muscle organ walls
this helps propel food through the SI
Greater Curvature
Lesser Curvature
Cardiac Region
Pyloric Region
Fundus
Rugae
Anatomy of Stomach:
Enzymes
Muscle Layers:
circular, longitudinal, obliquely
together they help the stomach mix churn and physically break down food
Gastric Pit:
Hydrolysis:
Pepsinogens:
Source:
chief cells of stomach
Site of Action:
stomach
Substrate:
(proteins)
Products:
an inactive form of pepsin
Pepsin:
Source:
chief cells of stomach
Site of Action:
stomach
Substrate:
proteins
Products:
dipeptides


Chyme
food that has been processed by the stomach that is transfered to the SI for the majority of the digestion/ absorption
upper region by the heart that surrounds the cardioesophageal sphincter through which food enters
the stomach from the esophagus

The air enters from the nasal cavity to here
its tube leads the air directly to the trachea so it can be inhaled by the lungs
Chief cells
: produce pepsinogens and digest protiens
Pariental cells
:produce hydrochloric acid (HCL)
Mucosal cells:
produce alkaline mucus
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Muscle layers:
Cover and protect SI organs and parts
Villi:
multi-cellular finger like projections that blood vessels and lacteal run through to help absorption
Micro villi:
cellular tiny projections of the plasma membrane of the brush border
Brush Border:
the surface area that contains villi, micro villi, and circular folds that increase surface available to help make absorption possible
Anatomy of Small Intestine
Enzymes of Small Intestine
Absorption:
Diffusion:
absorbs lipids
Active Transport:
absorbs carbonhydrates, protiens, and nucleotides
Passive Transport:
when nutrients arent absorbedm they are just passed through(fats)
Gall Bladder:
role in digestion is to detoxify drugs and alcohol, make bile, break down horomones, make blood protiens, and manage the metabolism
CCK
Horomones
Secretin
Mesentery:
Double layer of peritoneum that suspends the jejunum/ ileum from the posterior wall of the abdomen
Omentum:
A layer of peritoneum that surrounds underlying abdominal organs
Pancreas
Liver and
Pancreas

role in regulation of blood sugar....
Ascending Colon
Transverse Colon
Descending Colon
Cecum
By Ashton Pitera
cone shaped projection hanging from the back of the soft palate, hanging above the throat
the shape helps create sounds as air passes by it
used as a gag reflex to prevent food from going down the pharynx involuntary
the space between the cheeks and lips externally and the teeth and gums internally (inner cheeks)
help provide insulation and protection in mouth
Spleen
concave medial surface of the stomach( inside curve)
The exit valve of the stomach and the opening valve of the SI
the part of the stomach lateral to the cardiac region
the part curved around the pancreas
the terminal part of the small intestine
the middle part of the SI
Brush Border Enzymes
Aminopeptidase, Carbopeptidase, Dipeptidase
source:
brush border
site of action:
small intestine
subtrate:
dipeptide
products:
amino acids
Dextrinase, Glucoamylase
source:
brush border
site of action:
small intestine
subtrate:
oligsacharide
products:
amino acids
Lactase
source:
brush border
site of action:
brush border
subtrate:
lactose
products:
monosacharide
Maltase
source:
brush border
site of action:
brush border
subtrate:
maltose
products:
monosacharide
Sucrase
source:
brush border
site of action:
brush border
subtrate:
sucrose
products:
monosacharide
Pancreatis
Enzymes:
break down fats into monoglycerides and fatty acids ( now they can be absorbed)
source
: pancreas
site of action
: SI
substrate:
fats
products:
monogylcerides
"the wrinkle fold"
when the stomach's mucosa is thrown into large folds when it is empty
the convex lateral surface of the stomach (outside curve)
converted to pepsin by HCL in the stomach and released by chief cells
protien digesting enzyme that breaks down polypeptides into amino acids
are dumped into the pacreatic duct and enter the duodenum
lipase:
break down nucleic acids into nucleotides ( now they can be absorbed)
source
: pancreas
site of action
: SI
substrate:
DNA/RNA
products:
nucleotides
nucleases:
lips enter through lymphic channels that absorb fats from the villis of the SI, and then hydrolize the lipids by bile acids to form chyme that is channeled to the thoracic duct
the absorbed nutrients enter the capillaries and are carried to the liver through the hepatic portal vein
Goblet Cells:
provide mucus and lubricate the waste throught the tract
gluconeogenesis:
metabolic pathway, resilting in the genereation of glucose from non-carbonhydrate carbon sunstances
glycogenesis:
formation of glycogen from sugars
glycogenolysis:
breakdown of glycogen to glucose phosphate and glycogen
glucogen:
horomone found in pancreas, promoting breakdown of gycogen to glucose in the liver
insulin:
horomone produced by pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood
dehydration synthesis:
draining of water from chyme
hydrolysis:
chemical break down of a compound due to reaction with water
mixed gland:
gland with serous/mucous secretory units both exocrine and endocrine parts
source:
mucosal cells in SI
target:
pancreas/liver
stimulus:
chyme in SI
action:
stimulate pancreas and causes the liver to increase bile
importance:?????
source:
mucosal cells in SI
target:
pancreas
stimulus:
chyme in SI
action:
stimulate pancreas and causes the gallbladder to contrast
importance:??
emzymes use hydrolysis to break down cemical bonds by adding a water molecule .
Lacteal:
it can help with ....
fat deosit
immuneity support
place to stop infections from spreading
its connects structures to the abdominal cavity and the peritonieum where it surrounfs under lying organs, through which organs will transmit blood vessels and nerves
Bile
Enzymes: cholestrol
keep cholestol suspended becuase cholestrol is not soluable
if there is an imbalance in bile salts/ cholestrol, then bile turns into sludge, and if it is a great imbalance, then gallstones are eventually made
aides digestion with the use of nile/ bile acids to break down fats, so they can properly be transported through the SI into the blood stream
this process has to occur because fats can not be aborbed normall like other nurtients
Bile salts:
Emulsification:
large pouch begining the LI, that is continious of the lasy part of the SI (Iileum) through the ileocecal valve
begins at the cecum, where it joins the end pf the SI , and travels upward on ht eright side of the body to the transverse colon
Connects the asecending colon to the descending colon and lies across the upper abdomen
Connects the transverse colon and sigmoid colon , and lies along along the left side of the body
Full transcript