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Life Systems

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Kevin Clark

on 2 December 2014

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Transcript of Life Systems

Life Systems
Case Study:
Accident Report:
Male, 19. Riding his motorbike along a main road when he skidded on a patch of oil. The bike ran into a car on the wrong side of the road while overtaking.
Traumatic injuries take many forms, from road traffic collisions and falls to gunshot wounds and burns.

In the first instance the survival of a person who has experienced a serious injury will depend on the extent of damage to essential body tissues.

It is important to have an idea of the nature of the tissues that could become damaged during a traumatic injury and the mechanisms that enable them to repair.
Case Study:
The male sustained a serious injury to his arm, which involved damage to many different tissues.

On arrival at Hospital, the medical staff rapidly assessed his condition, checking his airway, breathing and circulation again and measuring his heart rate, blood pressure and level of consciousness. The bleeding had been stopped effectively by pressure applied at the scene and his level of consciousness was good.

The medical staff were able to relieve his pain by giving morphine; then a proper examination of his injured arm was possible.

The detailed examination of his arm revealed that he had sustained damage mainly to the wrist . The doctors explained that he would need an operation to realign the broken bone.
A closer look at tissues:

Tissue Structure

A tissue is broadly defined as a collection of specialized cells that are grouped together in an organised manner to fulfil a particular function.

Tissues are composed of cells.
The structure of individual tissues.....
Epithelial Tissues
Squamous Epithelium
Large surface area
Great for Diffusion
Thicker than Squamous Epithelium.
More robust
Lining of tubes and ducts.
Cubical Epithelium
May form Villi.
May have microvilli.
May have cilia.
May have goblet cells.
Columnar Epithelium
Columnar Epithelium with tiny hairs on the surface.
Ciliated Epithelium
Columnar epithelium with goblet cells
Goblet cells produce mucus
Glandular Epithelium
A Cell.
The smallest
Unit of a living
Connective Tissue
Form barriers or exchange surfaces
between your body and the external environment.
Very smooth
Made of Proteins
Two distinct types:
Cancellous Bone
Compact Bone.
Cancellous Bone:
Strong but light
Mixture of cells and an extracellular matrix (ECM)
ECM contains collagen.
Calcium Salts
ECM modified by Oesteoblasts and Oesteoclasts
Compact Bone
Erythrocytes contain Haemoglobin.
White blood cells are called leukocytes - fight disease.
Platelets are called Thrombocytes.
Have a distinct biconcave shape.
No nucleus.
Packed full of Haemoglobin.
Three types:
Found in the lining of blood vessels, bladder etc.
Not under voluntary control.

Only found in the Heart
Cardiac Muscle
Composed of bundles of neurons with collagen fibres
Nervous Tissue
Our motorcyclist's x-rays showed that he had indeed sustained a displaced fracture to his radius.

Luckily there were no signs of damage to the circulation or nerves in his arm. Doctors could focus on repairing the bone damage.

The skin was broken above the fracture site, making this an open fracture, so hospital staff were careful to clean the area very thoroughly and administered antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection.
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