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The Persian Language

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Adrianna Devine

on 29 September 2013

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Transcript of The Persian Language

The Persian Language
Spoken mostly in Iran-Farsi
Afghanistan-Dari
Tajikistan-Tajik.
There are approx 110 mill persian speakers

Learning Persian also helps with learning other languages
Arabic
Kurdish
Urdu and
Hindi

Grammar

Rather simple
No masculinity or femininity in nouns
No articles
ششییر
Persian Phonology
The biggest factor in the development of Persian phonology is the impact of the Arabic loan component


The language has six vowels and 23 consonant phonemes.

They contrast the short vowels with the long vowels.
For an example : some long vowels are , /iː/, /uː/, /ɒː/

some of the short vowels are: /e/, /o/, /æ/
Short vowels in the Persian language are not written, only in Arabic

There are a lot of Diphthongs occur in the Persian language.
Diphthongs are: two tone words
examples: /ej/, /aw/, /ow/, /aj/, /ɒj/, /oj/, and /uj/. /aj/~/ej/ and /aw/~/ow
Syllables
The Persian language does not have a syllable-initial consonant clusters.

The structure consists of one consonant, a syllable nucleus and then an optional coda

Consonant (C): Can be any consonant. (Onset is composed only of one consonant; consonant clusters are only found in loanwords, sometimes an epenthetic /æ/ is inserted between consonants.)
Onset
Nucleus
Semivowel (S)
Vowel (V)
Semivowel (S)
Coda
First consonant (C): Can be any consonant.
Second consonant (C): Can also be any consonant (mostly /d/, /k/, /s/, /t/, & /z/).
Stresses
Stress: One syllable in each word (breath group) is stressed.
There are some that are always stressed but there are some that are never stressed.

Stress falls on the first syllable of interjections, conjunctions and vocatives.
Stress falls on the last stem syllable of most words though
Interesting Facts
Persian was an essential language for the Mongols in India.
Used in the region until the Brits came by
55 % speak Persian, 20% speak related Western Iranian Language, 25% speak Arabic, New Aramaic, Armenian, Georgian, Romany, and Turkic languages
Persian is used for schools, government and modern media and is the official language in their respective countries. (Standardized)

Arguing Semaintics
Double Meanings
-SHIR شیر --->meaning tap, milk, lion
-SIR سیر ---> meaning garlic or full
-Mâh ماه ----> moon or month.
از بیخ عرب بودن (az bix 'Arab budan)
Literally--> Arab of Origin (the surprise of the Arab)
Idiom --> To be Ignored
دست شما درد نکنه (dast-e shomâ dard nakone)
Literally --> May your hand not be painful
Idiom --> Thank you
یکی بود یکی نبود (yeki bud yeki nabud)
Literally -->"One was, one wasn't."
Once upon a time

Salient Syntactic Features
Derived from Western Iranian
-ant (imperfect)
-EN 'to be'
guab- 'to say or speak'

Indo-Iranian Branch of Indo-European family
Broken into 3 branches
Old
Middle
New
Influences
Arab
Turkish and mongols
Persian Proverbs
1. No water is heated by him
2. When water flows uphill, frogs sing Abu Ata
3. A ewer and a hose do the same thing, but their real value show when they are pawned
4. I attempted to be benevolent, but I got burnt
5. Kettledrum sounds dulcet when heard from afar
Full transcript