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The Twenties and the The Great Gatsby
Transcript of The Twenties and the The Great Gatsby
Playwrights such as Gershwin, Jerome Kern, and Oscar Hammerstein
Famous plays were "An American in Paris" and "Show Boat"
268 plays offered in NYC in 1927 alone Baseball, tennis, golf, swimming, football, and boxing
Sports used to be amateur events, now caught the eyes of promoters who wanted to capitalize and make money
Professional football league, golf tours, and tennis circuit organized •Political experimentation
•Democracy threatened by communism, socialism, fascism
•Red Scare, rise of Russian SFSR/Soviet Union
•Enlightenment Era ideologies coming to realization in various parts of the world
•Marxist-Leninism (Soviet communism), anarchism, ultra-nationalism
•United States in isolationist phase
•United States is the world's greatest economic power
•United Kingdom still militarily superior
•"War to end all wars" over but Eastern Europe torn by war
•American military had more horses and bayonets •Republican Party controlled presidency 1921-1933
•Political parties almost reversed, Democrats controlled the south ("Solid South") and Republicans controlled New England/the North
•End of the Progressive Era
•Does not join League of Nations
•Colonial power, overseas dependencies such as Cuba
•The Ku Klux Klan had more influence, almost a mainstream organization like modern day TEA Party
Woodrow Wilson (D) 1913-1921
Warren G. Hardin (R) 1921-1923
Calvin Coolidge (R) 1923-1929
Herbert Hoover (R) 1929-1933 • Prohibition takes effect Saturday, January 17th, 1920
• Women’s suffrage (Nineteenth Amendment)
ratified Wednesday, August 18th, 1920
•American society liberalizing, though economically conservative Radio
By the end of the decade nearly half of all homes contained a radio
National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) and Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) transmitted signals across the nation, reaching almost every area in the U.S.
Music, news, and story programs
Radio allowed advertising of products; beginning of nationwide products taking over smaller, regional products
introduction of Billboard music charts Movies
Silent films, which had been around since the beginning of the century, became popular in the 1920's
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) founded
Silent film stars include Buster Keaton, Charlie Chaplin, Clara Bow, and Rudolph Valentino
Midway through the 20's film became U.S's 4th largest industry; around the same time first movies with sound were released
First appearance of Mickey Mouse in Steamboat Willie
Shows also had newsreels Babe Ruth: baseball
Jack Dempsey: boxing
Johnny Weissmuller: swimming
Knute Rockne and Red Grange: football
Bobby Jones and Glenna Collett: golf Speakeasies: underground bar or club with jazz and liquor
jazz began in the 20's, traveled upstream from New Orleans
Chicago and New York affected
From the New Orleans style were four major types of jazz: Boogie-Woogie, Chicago Jazz, Urban Blues, and Society Dance Bands.
Louis Armstrong: father of the jazz trumpet http://www.csun.edu/~hbcsc626/jazz.html
http://www.angelfire.com/anime4/sephirothbadazz/Reports/popularmusic.html •Louis Armstrong
•African American contribution
•Jazz led to dancing: foxtrot, Charleston, breakaway, swing Feminine grace without curves
slender and flat-chested
most skirts were just below the knee
dresses usually made at home
take away emphasis from the hips and feminine figure Hair
sequined caps were popular
http://glamourdaze.com/2010/05/1920s-fashion-womens-dress-and-style.html The Surrealist movement
Began in post-World War I
Form where images are based on fantasy and the world of dreams
used techniques like doodling and automatic drawing, putting down on paper whatever images came into their minds. Another method developed by the surrealists is frottage, where rubbings of wood or other rough surfaces produce unexpected shapes and textures The Art Deco movement
movement in decorative arts that also affected architecture
Art Deco is characterized by the use of materials like aluminum, stainless steel, lacquer, inlaid wood, sharkskin, and zebra skin. The use of zigzag and stepped forms, and sweeping curves, chevron patterns, and the sunburst motif.
The “New Negro” movement
many African Americans moved from the rural South to northern cities such as New York and Chicago
Archibald Motley, Jr., portrayed the African American experience as urban and progressive
He depicted nightclubs and crowded streets.
1929- Blues • Artists searched for a national identity or style
• established enduring themes in American art, including consumer culture, contemporary society and the city, and nature Consumer culture
Stuart Davis portrayed the modern urban environment through its common household objects, commercial packages, and signs.
1921- Lucky Strikes (features cigarettes) This theme can be seen in 1920’s literature as well
• “The Lost Generation”- describe the people of the 1920's who rejected American post World War I values
1926- The Sun Also Rises
1929- A Farewell to Arms
John Dos Passos
1920- One Man's Initiation: 1917
1921- Three Soldiers
1925- Manhattan Transfer Contemporary society and the city
Edward Hopper explored the loneliness and alienation of urban life and the loss of community in the modern city.
1927-Automat Seen in The Great Gatsby:
•Illusion of happiness hides a sad loneliness for the main characters Nature
Georgia O'Keeffe, a Midwest native, began creating her famous flower paintings, which were abstract and used organic shapes
1924- Red Canna After the stock market crash of 1929, the failing economy affected artists' livelihoods, and their creative freedom was challenged. http://www.beautifullife.info/art-works/surrealistic-paintings-by-vladimir-kush/ http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_EvtI1xQcIIU/SFHd74CxAJI/AAAAAAAAANc/Gbj7pBtFuzA/s1600-h/artdecomotif.jpg Some art was inspired by more traditional African art formssculptures by Richmond Barthé and Augusta Savage. http://www.cgfaonlineartmuseum.com/m/p-motley3.htm Augusta Savage
"The Harp" http://pauletteharris.blogspot.com/2012/12/harlem-renaissance-visual-arts-sculptors.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Davis_Stuart_Lucky_Strike_1921.jpg http://automathopper.blogspot.com/ http://www.georgiaokeeffe.net/red-canna.jsp https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSqnPI5qn37Z3vlk7xsfnrD5S9Td91MWoEcdlOqqXKN63EnEkdx https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTOpshAbPn9f6qt4GsqwlFyF-61fUU1_qCyhQqbjxPkf3lakvctWg https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQSoocU4VYyjc3WtIzhnHS_HdAoB7RGKh1n8wL7BmGqAf9PQ_lCRg https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTS8uBUtXXSbpnPLkiWB24Y0QpusRTtK_lfnDHfr1aoqA14Ms_B https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR_b57N-2wYFdMI32jepYrOxRTqYXMOfem7v-A2BPRTa5VkfB2ZCA https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTW_qiK1M63jS2roBwTU4G28Ge1uAhdUEuaY-bIhZgLnQJfTwft https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ_sFkEmP2WuKc4WIh3JlmKHIsBj5GPBdqvWayvsSoJ4UveDGNn https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRxxPpXk-KRaM6iPiroZ-r6h8gHcz7CGGEyZnuOkdZRlq-7pruciw https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRxxPpXk-KRaM6iPiroZ-r6h8gHcz7CGGEyZnuOkdZRlq-7pruciw https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ4jASKpPOk2o43dV3z5mKF3nCtrpZsmuafboD6J4iIybocXFrKUQ https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ4jASKpPOk2o43dV3z5mKF3nCtrpZsmuafboD6J4iIybocXFrKUQ https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRFl4UJtPehU9NTahUlvu340pLOAYEGW04AVyxTO3zX08hYCtshdw https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcThNku5w3uHJJ7_BU-XqajcQd9qs1-sZ-Xqr-oRvlkyNT6qTTWq https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRxcTrnUznXE0HGnP0Ol2lo5F6Jn1UjbQfUzo4TsetlZx-_8s5zNw https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSK6Lp74Ek80nTrCL0tikUZQZoJte7f-HLjB9SJkbyWS-GSh4oosA The Green Light
“But I didn’t call to him for he gave a sudden intimation that he was content to be alone-he stretched out his arms toward the dark water in a curious way…Involuntarily I glanced seaward-and distinguished nothing except a single green light, minute and far away, that might have been the end of a dock” (26).
“Daisy put her arm through his abruptly but he seemed absorbed in what he had just said. Possibly it had occurred to him that the colossal significance of that light had now vanished forever. Compared to the great distance that had separated him from Daisy it had seemed as close as a star to the moon. Now it was again a green light on a dock. His count of enchanted objects had diminished by one” (98).
•Intense yearning for Daisy
•Distant nature of light
•Light in encompassing dark
•Objectivity of Nick https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSoalsRxBsGW_ya3MTX0GmVm5BvJA7NSowp_F6rXfnYEun28FgPIg The Eyes of Dr. T. J. Eckleburg
“She had told him that she loved him, and Tom Buchanan saw. He was astounded. His mouth opened a little and he looked at Gatsby and then back at Daisy as if he had just recognized her as someone he knew a long time ago. ‘You resemble the advertisement of the man,’ she went on innocently. ‘You know the advertisement of the man’’”(125).
“We were all irritable now with the fading ale and, aware of it, we drove for a while in silence. Then as Doctor T. J. Eckleburg’s faded eyes came into sight down the road I remembered Gatsby’s caution about gasoline” (129).
“That locality was always vaguely disquieting, even in the broad glare of afternoon, and now I turned my head as though I had been warned of something behind. Over the ashheaps the giant eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg kept their vigil but I perceived, after a moment, that other eyes were regarding us with peculiar intensity from less than twenty feet away” (131).
• Presence of God
• Severity of corruption
• Nick’s perspective https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQmSFJ66USKSdrsehlE9jwTzyy4pFXhWZvpOJEAndlbarU0g3EtOw Polysyndeton
“Again at eight o’clock, when the dark lanes of the Forties were five deep with throbbing taxi cabs, bound for the theatre district, I felt a sinking in my heart. Forms leaned together in the taxis as they waited, and voices sang, and there was laughter from unheard jokes, and lighted cigarettes outlined unintelligible gestures inside. Imagining that I, too, was hurrying toward gayety and sharing their intimate excitement, I wished them well” (62).
“From West Egg came the Poles and the Mulreadys and Cecil Roebuck and Cecil Schoen and Gulick, the state senator, and Newton Orchid who controlled Films Par Excellence and Eckhaust and Clyde Cohen and Dos S. Schwartze (the son) and Arthur McCarty, all connected with the movies in one way or another. And the Catlips and the Bembergs and G. Earl Muldoon, brother to that Muldoon who afterwards strangled his wife. Da Fontano the promoter came there and Ed Legros and James B. (“Rot-Gut”) Ferret and the de Jongs and Ernest Lilly-they came to gamble and when Ferret wandered into the garden it meant he was cleaned out and Associated Traction would have to fluctuate profitably next day” (66-67).
“He took out a pile of shirts and began throwing them one by one before us, shirts of sheer linen and thick silk and fine flannel which lost their folds as they fell and covered the table in many-colored disarray. While we admired he brought more and the soft rich heap mounted higher-shirts with stripes and scrolls and plaids in coral and apple green and lavender and faint orange with monograms of Indian blue” (98).
• Portrayal of lavish wealth
• Comparative insignificance of the wealthy
• Nick’s unornamented existence Irony
“We all looked-the knuckle was black and blue…‘That’s what I get for marrying a brute of a man’…‘Civilization’s going to pieces,’ broke out Tom violently…‘Have you read ‘The Rise of the Coloured Empires’ by this man Goddard’” (16-17)?
“From the ballroom beneath, muffled and suffocating chords were drifting up on hot waves of air” (139).
“’Was she killed?’…‘I thought so; I told Daisy I thought so. It’s better that the shock should come at once. She stood it pretty well.’ He spoke as if Daisy’s reaction was the only thing that mattered” (151).
• The hypocrisy of the corrupt
• The destructive effects of a sybaritic, wanton life
• The moral detachment of the powerful Personification
“The caterwauling horns had reached a crescendo and I turned away and cut across the lawn toward home. I glanced back once. A wafer of a moon was shining over Gatsby’s house, making the night fine as before and surviving the laughter and the sound of his still glowing garden. A sudden emptiness seemed to flow now from the windows and the great doors, endowing with complete isolation the figure of the host who stood on the porch, his hand up in a formal gesture of farewell” (60).
“But there wasn’t a sound. Only wind in the trees which blew the wires and made the lights go off and on again as if the house had winked into the darkness. As my taxi groaned away I saw Gatsby walking toward me across his lawn” (86).
“I couldn’t sleep all night; a fog-horn was groaning incessantly on the Sound, and I tossed half sick between grotesque reality and savage frightening dreams” (154).
• Symbolism-a lingering concern for Gatsby
• Detachment from luxury and excess
• Gastby’s greater insignificance Gatsby
• Ambiguous past
• Enigmatic nature; social detachment
• Condescending nature-“old sport”
• Feeble, irresolute personality-contrast with aristocratic tinge
• Inextricable attachment to Daisy
‘“After that I lived like a young rajah in all the capitals of Europe-Paris, Venice, Rome-collecting jewels, chiefly rubies, hunting big game, painting a little, things for myself only, and trying to forget something very sad that had happened to me long ago’” (70).
‘“Your place looks like the world’s fair,’” I said. ‘“Does it?’ He turned his eyes toward it absently” (87).
“He stretched out his hand desperately as if to snatch only a wisp of air, to save a fragment of the spot that she had made lovely for him. But it was all going by too fast now for his blurred eyes and he knew that he had lost that part of it, the freshest and the best, forever” (160). https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT5jVP1UAuLndnOXEPleSdqcW9JALhlsLIjSe51CoLkA5FT4pKF https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRIjeKFVhUkdhuQySU932ysqqBqmU3SfV12Ezh_6cTOQ5nlrBbD 1920: National Football League formed
1921: The schooner Bluenose begins her undefeated career in racing, winning the International Fisherman's Trophy
1922: First sub-one minute 100m freestyle swim
1924: First Winter Olympic Games; in the Summer Olympics, Paavo Nurmi wins 5 gold medals in Athletics (track and field)
1925: French Open in tennis opened to non-French players for the first time; first handball international between Germany and Belgium
1926: Jack Dempsey loses his world heavweight boxing title to Gene Tunney; Gertrude Ederle becomes the first woman to swim the English Channel
1927: First Ryder Cup of golf
1928: Women's Olympic athletics and gymnastics are held for the first time at the 1928 Summer Olympics Summary Nick Carraway moves to New York in 1922 to learn about the bond business
Moves into a house on West egg, Gatsby is neighbor
Nick drives to East Egg to visit Daisy and Tom Buchanan
Is introduced to Jordan Baker
Goes with Tom to visit Myrtle Wilson
Meets Gatsby at one of his parties
Arranges meeting at his house where Gatsby and Daisy are reunited
Begin love affair again
At lunch, Tom realizes that Gatsby is in love with Daisy
Confrontation at the Plaza Hotel
Daisy and Gatsby drive back
Tom's car has killed Myrtle, Daisy was driving
Tom tells George Wilson that Gatsby killed Myrtle
George kills Gatsby
Nick moves back to the midwest Nick Carraway
•Wing man for Gatsby
•Third wheel at times
•Although it doesn’t always seem like it, he really cares for Gatsby
•Fascinated by Gatsby’s lifestyle https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRoMWSW7Q6pKi3JA6DKUKpR4iH2bwRotWopiKEEUYjW70JfAGPT https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQU3eXWuYLsCQdDGq7GIDz1DvtWOuQBEUYrYVChB8ph0a-iTHlc The End The United States at Home America Moves Left Industrial America Reaching New Heights •Roaring Twenties
•Characterized by conservative economic policies
•Tax rates on wealthiest initially 73% then down to 25%
•American industrial might reaches new heights
•Labor unions started strong, still had more clout than today
•Before social security, medicare
•Segregation still existed and supported by Southern Democrats
•African Americans still extremely poor
•BLACK TUESDAY on Wall Street, Stock Market Crash of 1929, end of the Roaring Twenties http://www.oheka.com/index.php?page=estate_gallery
http://dolphinyachtservice.com/charter www.angelfire.com/anime4/sephirothbadazz/Reports/entertainment.html www.1920-30.com/sports/ Shoes
shoes with straps were popular because you could take them off while dancing http://vintagetextile.com/new_page_569.htm https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTUB65v7n9Xmcc5X_rT2JqbYK9swbrnf6w06K7SwWbK2yeCNVrw Men's Fashion
men always wore suits
made from wool
pants always matched the jacket
crease in front of legs
went to mid ankle
cuffs at bottom
became very wide
3-piece suit with vest
bright colored shirts
bowties and ties
https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTqA29-3T6QzaP458KeFZ7hNsMaROkDF1SDPdr8e6PNd5Pqx_u_aQ https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQl-rVNiKtpNlTI7lMEQz2qb7pkDzKGr0FtQCkb0v4DfMEjrtm0 http://stylebespoke.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/vlcsnap-2012-01-08-23h19m15s69.png