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THE GILDED AGE

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Benjamin Shahon

on 23 April 2014

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Transcript of THE GILDED AGE

AGE
THE GILDED
By Ryan Kato, Connor Sebo, Kenny Siqueiros, and Benjamin Shahon
Politics
Economy
Religion
and Society
Culture
Review
Presidents
19. Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881)
20. James A. Garfield (1881), d. 1881
21. Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885)
22. Grover Cleveland (1885-1889)
23. Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893)
24. Grover Cleveland, v. 2.0 (1893-1897)
25. William McKinley (1897-1901), d.1901
Congressional Decisions
Comstock Law (1873)
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Resumption Act (1875)
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Pendleton Act (1883)
Hatch Act (1887)
Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
"Billion Dollar" Congress (1890)
McKinley Tariff Act (1890)
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
Wilson Gorman Tariff (1894)
Dingley Tariff (1897)
Gold Standard Act (1900)
Supreme Court Decisions
Wabash Case
1866
Details
Decision
In Re Debs
1895
Details
Decision
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896
Details
Decision
Domestic and International Scandals
Tammany Hall (1790's-1960's)
Credit Mobilier (1864-1872)
Hayes-Tilden Standoff (1877)
Garfield Assassination (1881)
Samoan Crisis (1887-1889)
Pan American Conference (1889)
New Orleans Crisis (1891)
Valpraiso Crisis (1891)
Hawaii & Annexation (1820-1959)
Spanish American War & Teller Amendment (1898)
Venezuela Crisis (1895, 1902-1903)
Phillipines (1898-1946)
Open Door Note (1899)
Foraker Act (1900)
Boxer Rebellion (1898-1900)
Populist Party (1887-1908)
1870-1900
Overview
Economy experienced massive growth
Larger divisions between social classes
Largely influenced by the Civil War
Caused quick, drastic industrialization in the North
Laissez Faire allowed big business to flourish, but labor didn't fare as well
Business tycoons dominated entire industries
Used trusts, vertical/horizontal integration
The railroad industry flourished and caused rapid Western movement
The Depression of 1873
Rise of organized labor and unions
I'm not a businessman. I'm a business, man.
Society Overview
Leftover feelings of resentment between the North and South from the Civil War
Major population growth, especially through immigration
Shift towards urban cities from farms
Increased/decreased standards of living
Westward expansion due to railroads
Growing gap between the upper and lower social classes and the lifestyles of both
Development of women's civil rights and a shift away from the previous Cult of Domesticity
Economic growth
Civil War improved finance system and spurred industrialization
G, D, and L responsible for growth
Geography - plentiful resources
Demography - 40 mil. -> 76 mil. by 1900 (ty immigration)
Immigration = good (for economies); populated cities and contributed to the work force
Law - Super Court = business friendly; protected patents; tariffs and land grants played a role
Foreigners played apart, they saw investing in America more prosperous than in Britain
Population Movement
Immigrants
Women's Changing Roles
Religion
Urbanization
Big Business
The three big business men were:
Rockefeller - Oil monopoly using horizontal integration
JP Morgan - Varied set of holdings; shady arms selling and then moved on to the railroads
Carnegie - Controlled steel industry with vertical integration
Used The "Gospel of Wealth" to justify themselves
William Sumner applied Darwinian philosophy to the market
Created a large gap between classes
Lazy Fair economics allowed entrepreneurs to act freely, without fear of gov. interference and the Super Court was very friendly
Technology
Surplus of immigrants --> huge amounts of growth
Growth + rise in power of big business led to movement into urban cities
Living conditions for middle/upper class citizens was higher
Poor immigrants created slums with terrible living conditions
Jacob Riis -
How the Other Half Lives
; brought light to these awful conditions
By 1900 40% of the total population was in urban cities
Jane Addams - Hull House, Chicago
Railroad
Railroad industry was one of the highlights of the time because of the Credit Mobilizer scandal
Vanderbilt laid quite a bit of RR tracks that transported goods and passengers
increased commerce and integrated the market; also time zones for max. efficiency
One of the first large corps. so shares were sold and that is how revenue was raised
Jay Gould made millions embezzling stocks from RR companies
Famous method was "stock watering"; over inflated their stocks and sold for huge profits
Bribery was a huge problem
Pools were formed in order to set prices
Interstate Commerce Act to protect consumers
Organized Labor
Depression of 1873
Constitution protected patents, which promoted invention
Westinghouse' air brakes
Bessemer blast furnace drastically changed the steel making industry
Nikolai Tesla invented numerous electrical devices (induction motor)
Edison co-founded General Electric and also created numerous devices (lightbulb guy)
The infamous rivalry between the two was because of the clashing methods and was also because Tesla was played over by Edison
General:
Many immigrants were Jewish or Catholic (perceived as a threat)]
Nativists
Page Act of 1875
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Many were easily manipulated by businessmen and provided them with cheap labor
In the Gilded Age, every man
was potentially an Andrew
Carnegie, ready and willing to take
the world by the horns. This being
said, the gap between the rich and
the poor was wider than ever, and
still expanding.
The Rich: the wealthy had
the money to experience
everything money had to offer,
like the opera, theater, and
extravagant parties. The government
was corrupt and bought out, while the
people in charge, the wealthy, had
a large influence on the doings of
the government.
The Robber Barons
A Shift to the City
Notice the slums,
overhead rail
system, and
oddly lit bridges.
This is, of course,
Gotham City.
The urbanization of wasn't a good thing for everyone. Mostly because everyone wasn't JD Rockefeller.
People were cramped into tight apartment like shoe boxes that formed Dumbbell Tenements
These changes in the morals and mindsets of Americans were a challenge for traditional thinking.
It's important to note that cartoonists like Thomas Nast were early Muckrakers, and helped pave the way for serious exploitation of scandal during the early twentieth Century.
From this emerged Social Darwanism, referring first to Herbert Spencer and William Sumner(wide-open capitalist defenders). Spencer was the one to coin the phrase "survival of the fittest", emphasizing natural law as an excuse to hold contempt for the poor.
The coinciding view to Social Darwanism was the
"Gospel of Wealth", or the belief that society's wealthy had a responsibility to prove themselves morally capable of handling such money.
Two of the factors are inflation and investments
Too many RR and factories that the markets could support
Panic = over-spec and too easy credit
Started with failure of NY banking firm Jay Cooke & Co.
A substantial effect was the Great Railroad Strike
Movement westward due to the creation of railroads and the Homestead Act of 1862
Railroads connected all parts of the country and allowed for quick, easy movement
1890 the western frontier officially closes
Urbanization spurred movement out of agricultural areas
2/3 of Americans worked for wages instead of farms
Standard of living rose, but immigration caused job insecurity
Workers worked hours on end and no compensation for injuries
Led to unions and Knights of Labor was one of the first national level union, but was set back due to the Haymarket Square bombing
Strikes were aimed to get better wages, hours, and conditions
Notable examples include the Homestead Strike and Pullman Strike
The most powerful union to emerge was the AFL
Social Classes
Gilded Age religion focused on social reform and improving society
The Social Gospel - a movement that was centered around the belief that the church and its members should actively fight problems in society
The Gospel of Wealth - the belief that the rich are best fit to lead
Social Darwinism - applies Darwin's theory of natural selection to society; only the strong survive
Immigrants from Europe brought Catholicism and Judaism to the US
Religious differences led to discrimination against Europeans
Against the typical Cult of Domesticity lifestyle typical of most women previously; supported Maternal Commonwealth
Many more were becoming college-educated and wanted good jobs
Those who didn't go to college became secretaries or telephone operators, which were both very new positions for women
Wealthy women managed the house and its caretakers, while poor women worked domestically or sharecropped
Temperance was an idea promoted by women
Frances Willard, Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Women also began working in social services, starting with
Jane Addams and the Hull House
Women also fought for suffrage, improved
labor rights, improved child care, and
abortion
A middle class was formed from the movement into cities
The upper and lower classes differed drastically from one another
The Upper Class
The Lower Class
Lived in spacious mansions
Ate expensive meals
Hired servants
Worked as businessmen
Promoted Social Darwinism and the Gospel of Wealth
Took advantage of poor laborers to make more profits
Lived in very crowded tenements
Could barely afford to eat
Worked as sharecroppers or laborers
Opposed big companies that took advantage of them for cheap labor
lol jk
What was horizontal integration?
What did the Dawes Severalty Act do?
Who was the guy that used interlocking directorates?
Full transcript