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The Politics of Slavery and the Civil War

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David Dry

on 10 May 2018

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Transcript of The Politics of Slavery and the Civil War

Problems of Expansion
Election of 1852
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Popular Sovereignty

Martin Van Buren
Southern Slave Economy

Economy of the North

Henry Clay
Millard Fillmore
James Buchanan
Charles Sumner (MA)
Preston Brooks(SC)

Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)

John Brown

Raid on Harpers Ferry (1859)

Robert E. Lee/Jeb Stuart
Split of Democratic Party
Stephen Douglas
"It was a warning voice, coming from the grave to the Congress now in session to beware, to pause, to reflect, before they lend themselves to any purposes which shall destroy that Union which was cemented by (Washington's) his exertions and example." - Remarks on the Compromise of 1850- Henry Clay
Politics of Slavery cont.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
"Uncle Tom's Cabin" (1852)
The whole Territorial question being thus settled upon the principle of popular sovereignty—a principle as ancient as free government itself—everything of a practical nature has been decided. No other question remains for adjustment, because all agree that under the Constitution slavery in the States is beyond the reach of any human power except that of the respective States themselves wherein it exists.....What a happy conception, then, was it for Congress to apply this simple rule, that the will of the majority shall govern, to the settlement of the question of domestic slavery in the Territories. Congress is neither “to legislate slavery into any Territory or State nor to exclude it therefrom, but to leave the people thereof perfectly free to form and regulate their domestic institutions in their own way, subject only to the Constitution of the United States.”

James Buchanan, Inaugural Address (1857)
Abraham Lincoln: “House Divided” Speech
Stephen A. Douglas: First Speech of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
I am a non-resistant and I not only desire, but have labored unremittingly to effect, the peaceful abolition of slavery, by an appeal to the reason and conscience of the slaveholder; yet, as a peace man—an “ultra” peace man—I am prepared to say, “Success to every slave insurrection at the South, and in every slave country.”… I do not see how I compromise or stain my peace profession in making that declaration. Whenever there is a contest between the oppressed and the oppressor,—the weapons being equal between the parties,—God knows my heart must be with the oppressed, and always against the oppressor. Therefore, whenever commenced, I cannot but wish success to all slave insurrections

William Lloyd Garrison: Speech Relating to the Execution of John Brown (1859)
Holding, as they do, that slavery is morally right, and socially elevating, they cannot cease to demand a full national recognition of it, as a legal right, and a social blessing.

Nor can we justifiably withhold this, on any ground save our conviction that slavery is wrong. If slavery is right, all words, acts, laws, and constitutions against it, are themselves wrong, and should be silenced, and swept away. If it is right, we cannot justly object to its nationality - its universality; if it is wrong, they cannot justly insist upon its extension - its enlargement.....

Wrong as we think slavery is, we can yet afford to let it alone where it is, because that much is due to the necessity arising from its actual presence in the nation; but can we, while our votes will prevent it, allow it to spread into the National Territories, and to overrun us here in these Free States? If our sense of duty forbids this, then let us stand by our duty, fearlessly and effectively.

Cooper Union Address (February 27, 1860)
Civil War
Lincoln elected (Nov. 1860)
Julia Ward Howe: “The Battle Hymn of the Republic”
1st Battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861)

"Stonewall" Jackson
Anaconda Plan
North vs. South

Southern Advantages
Zebulon Vance on Lincoln’s Call For Troops:

“I was canvassing for the Union with all my strength; I was addressing a large and excited crowd, large numbers of whom were armed, and literally had my hand extended upward in pleading for peace and the Union of our Fathers, when the telegraphic news was announced of the firing on Sumter and the President’s call for 75,000 volunteers.

When my hand came down from that impassioned gesticulation, it fell slowly and sadly by the side of a secessionist. I immediately, with altered voice and manner, called upon the assembled multitude to volunteer not to fight against, but for South Carolina. I said, if war must come, I preferred to be with my own people; if we had to shed blood I preferred to shed Northern rather than Southern blood.

If we had to slay I had rather slay strangers than my own kindred and neighbors; and that it was better, whether right or wrong, that communities and States should get together and face the horrors of war in a body---sharing a common fate, rather than endure unspeakable calamities of internecine strife"
Cotton Diplomacy

Funding the War
Salmon Chase

Total War
Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863)

Peninsula Campaign (July, 1862)

That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.......And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defence; and I recommend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages......And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind, and the gracious favor of Almighty God

Emancipation Proclamation
Shelton Laurel Massacre
Western North Carolina
Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863)

With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan—to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.

Abraham Lincoln: Second Inaugural Address (1865)
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives, that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

November 19, 1863
Ford's Theater
Sherman’s March

Essay #2
Service Learning

Angel of History
Explain social and economic the ramifications of the gold rush.
The Gold Rush
1847-- 459

1848-- 850

July 1849 -- 5,000

Dec 1849 -- 25,000

1852-- 36,151
Population of San Francisco
6. Complaints may be made before a Justice of the Peace, by white persons or Indians: but in no case shall a white man be convicted on any offence upon the testimony of an Indian.

Issues of Expansion
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
They [African Americans] are not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word ‘citizens' in the Constitution, and can therefore claim none of the rights and privileges which that instrument provides for and secures to citizens of the United States. On the contrary, they were at that time [1787] considered as a subordinate and inferior class of beings......so far inferior, that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and sold, and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and traffic, whenever a profit could be made by it. This opinion was at that time fixed and universal in the civilized portion of the white race.

Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
Ironclad Ships

Slavery and the Civil War
Cumberland Landing, VA (1862)
Black Codes

Oh, I'm a good old Rebel,
Now, that's just what I am,
For this "fair land of freedom"
I do not care a damn.
I'm glad I fit against it --
I only wish we'd won;
And I don't want no pardon
For anything I've done.

I hates the Constitution,
This great Republic, too;
I hates the Freedmen's Bureau,
In uniforms of blue.
I hates the nasty eagle,
With all his brag and fuss;
But the lyin', thievin' Yankees,
I hates 'em wuss and wuss.

I hates the Yankee nation,
And everything they do;
I hates the Declaration
Of Independence, too;
I hates the glorious Union,
'Tis dripping with our blood;
And I hates the striped banner
I fit it all I could.
I followed old Mars' Robert
For four year, near about,
Got wounded in three places,
And starved at Pint Lookout.
I cotch the roomatism
A-campin' in the snow,
But I killed a chance of Yankees --
And I'd like to kill some mo'.

Three hundred thousand Yankees
Is stiff in Southern dust;
We got three hundred thousand
Befo' they conquered us.
They died of Southern fever
And Southern steel and shot;
And I wish it was three millions
Instead of what we got.

I can't take up my musket
And fight 'em now no mo'.
But I ain't a-goin' to love 'em,
Now this is sartin sho';
And I don't want no pardon
For what I was and am,
And I won't be reconstructed,
And I don't care a damn.
15th Amendment (1870)- Voting Rights
Final Exam
"The West" by Ken Burns

55:55- 114:00
Impact and unresolved issues
3. Any person having or hereafter obtaining a minor Indian, male or female, from the parents or relations of such Indian Minor, and wishing to keep it, such person shall go before a Justice of the Peace in his Township, with the parents or friends of the child, and if the Justice of the Peace becomes satisfied that no compulsory means have been used......he shall give to such person a certificate, authorizing him or her to have the care, custody, control, and earnings of such minor, until he or she obtain the age of majority.

20. Any Indian able to work and support himself in some honest calling, not having wherewithal to maintain himself, who shall be found loitering and strolling about, or frequenting public places where liquors are sold, begging, or leading an immoral or profligate course of life, shall be liable to be arrested on the complaint of any reasonable citizen of the county.....and if said Justice, mayor or Recorder shall be satisfied that he is a vagrant, as above set forth, he shall... hire out such vagrant within twenty-four hours to the highest bidder, by public notice given as he shall direct, for the highest price that can be had, for any term not exceeding four months
An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians (1850)
Compromise of 1850
Texas Border
Washington D.C Slave Trade
Fugitive Slave Act
"King Cotton"
Mechanized Agricultural
Urbanization and Industry
"Border Ruffians"
Republican Party
African Americans not citizens
Federal Government cannot ban slavery in territories (Missouri Compromise unconstitutional)
"The writer has given only a faint shadow, a dim picture, of the anguish and despair that are, at this very moment, riving thousands of hearts, shattering thousands of families, and driving a helpless and sensitive race to frenzy and despair. There are those living who know the mothers whom this accursed traffic has driven to the murder of their children; and themselves seeking in death a shelter from woes more dreaded than death … And say, mothers of America, is this a thing to be defended, sympathized with, passed over in silence? Do you say that the people of the free state have nothing to do with it, and can do nothing? Would to God this were true! But it is not true. The people of the free states have defended, encouraged, and participated; and are more guilty for it, before God, than the South, in that they have not the apology of education or custom."

Harriet Beecher Stowe, "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Underground Railroad
Harriet Tubman
Frederick Douglass
Northern Advantages
Naval Superiority

Union Naval Superiority
April 18, 1861- Following a speech by Nicholas Woodfin, the Buncombe Riflemen left Asheville, led by Captain William Wallace McDowell.
Industrial output
Northern Opposition
Every freedman, free negro and mulatto shall, on the second Monday of January, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six, and annually thereafter, have a lawful home or employment, and shall have written evidence thereof.”

All rouges and vagabonds, idle and dissipated persons......shall be deemed and considered vagrants.

If any freedman, free negro, or mulatto shall fail or refuse to pay any tax levied according to the provisions of the sixth section of this act, it shall be prima facie evidence of vagrancy, and it shall be the duty of the sheriff to arrest such freedman, free negro, or mulatto, or such person refusing or neglecting to pay such tax, and proceed at once to hire for the shortest time such delinquent taxpayer to any one who will pay the said tax, with accruing costs, giving preference to the employer, if there be one.

Black Code of Mississippi (1866)
Andrew Johnson
Lincoln's 10% Plan
Radical Republicans
Congressional Reconstruction
Who freed the slaves?
Election of 1864
Abraham Lincoln (Republican)
George B. McClellan (Democrat)
Andrew Johnson (VP)
Chancellorsville (May, 1863)
December 20, 1859- William Wallace McDowell organized the Buncombe Riflemen in response to John Brown’s raid at Harpers Ferry.
April 18, 1861- Following a speech by Nicholas Woodfin, the Buncombe Riflemen left Asheville, led by Captain McDowell.
May 4, 1861- Zebulon Vance’s unit, the “Rough and Ready Guards,” departed Asheville.
April 15, 1861- Lincoln calls for troops
WNC and the Start of the Civil War
Zebulon Vance- Civil War Governor
April 26, 1865- Union army marches through town, and Asheville's slave population is freed. Later that night, Asheville was sacked by Union forces.
November 24, 1863- "Excuse from conscription all men, heads of families, whose wives and children are absolutely and entirely dependent on their labor for a support"
April 20, 1865- The Battle of Swannanoa Gap was fought- perhaps the last confederate victory east of the Mississippi.
WNC and the end of the Civil War
April 9, 1865- Robert E. Lee's surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant.
April 6, 1865- The Battle of Asheville took place on the campus of UNCA
April 1865- George Avery, a slave then owned by the McDowell family, joined Union Company-D, 40th US Colored Troops during the Civil War.
March 14, 1862- Vance, a Colonel of the Twenty-sixth North Carolina, fought in the Battle of New Bern
September 8, 1862 - Vance became Governor of North Carolina
Habeas corpus, food shortages, war production, blockade running
Asheville Armory

December 24, 1862- Captain Benjamin Sloan took over operation of the Asheville Armory, as it was producing inferior weapons.
The Mexicans who, in the territories aforesaid...... shall be incorporated into the Union of the United States and be admitted at the proper time (to be judged of by the Congress of the United States) to the enjoyment of all the rights of citizens of the United States, according to the principles of the Constitution; and in the mean time, shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty and property, and secured in the free exercise of their religion without restriction.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)

What rights does this guarantee to the Mexicans living in the territory acquired by the United States?
Mexican American War
Economic Impact
Social Impact
Native Americans
Wilmot Proviso (1846)
Opposition to Expansion of Slavery
"Slave Power"
Cultural Zones
Election of 1848
Zachary Taylor (Whig)
Lewis Cass (Democrat)
Free Soil
“There can be no such thing as peaceable secession.… Is the great Constitution under which we live, covering this whole country, is it to be thawed and melted away by secession, as the snows on the mountain melt under the influence of a vernal sun, disappear almost unobserved, and run off? No, Sir! No, Sir!” - Speech on the Preservation of the Union- Daniel Webster
"But I call upon the friends of the Union from every quarter, to come forward like men, and to sacrifice their differences upon the common altar of their country's good.......For a nation divided against itself cannot stand.” - Speech Supporting the Compromise of 1850- Sam Houston
Debates on the Omnibus Bill
Franklin Pierce (Democrat)
Winfield Scott (Whig)
Election of 1856
John C. Frémont
Omnibus Bill
Stephen Douglas
Popular Sovereignty
Bleeding Kansas
Sack of Lawrence
John Brown
May 22, 1856 Caning
Debates in Congress
Stephen Douglas
Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln (Republican)
Leaving the Union(Dec-Feb)
Inauguration (March 4)
Fort Sumter (April 12)
Lincoln's call for troops (April 15)
Border States
Military Leadership
Defensive War
Battle of Hampton Roads (March, 1862)
H. L. Hunley
Freedom from Slavery
Confiscation Act of 1861
13th Amendment (1865)
African American Units
Gettysburg Address
Ulysses S. Grant
Vicksburg (July 4, 1863)
George McClellan
Robert E. Lee
Antietam (Sept. 17, 1862)
Ulysses S. Grant
Siege of Petersburg
Appomattox (April 9, 1865)
Deep South
Assassination of Lincoln
April 14, 1865
John Wilkes Booth
Ku Klux Klan
Extra Credit
For Monday
, locate a news article that either.....
1) Shows the lingering ramifications of unresolved issues of the Civil War or some other pre-1865 event
2) Shows the impact of some pre-1865 event or movement on the modern day
Be prepared
to discuss the significance and impact of pre-1865 American history
14th Amendment (1868)- Citizenship
November 23, 1864- "Large numbers of exchanged NC prisoners are arriving here every day destitute of clothing and every other comfort"
Lieber Code
Abraham Lincoln: “House Divided” Speech (1858)

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Convention.

If we could first know where we are, and whither we are tending, we could then better judge what to do, and how to do it.

We are now far into the fifth year, since a policy was initiated, with the avowed object, and confident promise, of putting an end to slavery agitation.

Under the operation of that policy, that agitation has not only, not ceased, but has constantly augmented.

In my opinion, it will not cease, until a crisis shall have been reached, and passed.
“A house divided against itself cannot stand.”

I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.
I do not expect the Union to be dissolved—I do not expect the house to fall—but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.

Either the opponents of slavery, will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new—North as well as South

Stephen A. Douglas: First Speech of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)

Mr. Lincoln, in the extract from which I have read, says that this Government cannot endure permanently in the same condition in which it was made by its framers,—divided into Free and Slave States. He says that it has existed for about seventy years thus divided, and yet he tells you that it cannot endure permanently on the same principles and in the same relative condition in which our fathers made it. Why can it not exist divided into Free and Slave States? Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, Madison, Hamilton, Jay, and the great men of that day, made this Government divided into Free States and Slave States, and left each State perfectly free to do as it pleased on the subject of slavery. Why can it not exist on the same principles on which our fathers made it?

If uniformity had been adopted when the Government was established, it must inevitably have been the uniformity of slavery everywhere, or else the uniformity of negro citizenship and negro equality everywhere…...

We are told by Lincoln that he is utterly opposed to the Dred Scott decision, and will not submit to it, for the reason that he says it deprives the negro of the rights and privileges of citizenship...... I ask you, are you in favor of conferring upon the negro the rights and privileges of citizenship? Do you desire to strike out of our State Constitution that clause which keeps slaves and free negroes out of the State, and allow the free negroes to flow in, and cover your prairies with black settlements? Do you desire to turn this beautiful State into a free negro colony, in order that when Missouri abolishes slavery she can send one hundred thousand emancipated slaves into Illinois, to become citizens and voters, on an equality with yourselves? If you desire negro citizenship, if you desire to allow them to come into the State and settle with the white man, if you desire them to vote on an equality with yourselves, and to make them eligible to office, to serve on juries, and to adjudge your rights, then support Mr. Lincoln and the Black Republican party, who are in favor of the citizenship of the negro.
April 21, 1865- "I fear there may be delay which will cause our own troops to do more damage than they enemy could. The greatest state of anarchy and confusion prevails here"
April 28, 1865- "Whereas, by the recent surrender of the principal armies of the Confederate States, further resistance to the United States has become vain, and would result in a useless waste of blood"
Upcoming Items
Final Exam
Legal Status of Slavery
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