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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

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on 23 January 2014

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Transcript of ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

ORGANIC
CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry: is a chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties of organic molecules and the study of their reaction paths, interactions, and applications.
WHAT ?
Organic compounds are complex compounds of carbon.
Carbon atoms bond to each other easily, which is why many organic compounds contain large chains and rings of carbon.
Hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms are the ones most commonly attached to the carbon atoms. Since each carbon atom has 4 electron in its valence shell, the increase of the compounds complexity
WHERE ?
All living things are made up of complex systems of inorganic and organic compounds.
There are four main types of organic compounds found in the body: carbohydrates, fats, protein, and nucleic acid. Protein builds up about 70% of all body compounds

In fact, Organic compounds are also found in :
natural gas
animals
plants
HOW ?
Bonds in organic molecules are covalent and hydrogen bonds. Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons so they can both acheive a full valence shell. This forms a rigid bond between the atoms.
EXAMPLE:
For example, plants produce organic compounds when they undergo photosynthesis. Using energy from the sunlight they make many compounds, like glucose, fats, and vitamins.
Formula:
6CO2 + 6H20 --> C6H1206 + 6O2
Significance of Carbon and its bonding properties
As we know, carbon is the fourth most found element in the universe, and considered as the building block of life on earth. In fact, all living things contain carbon in some form. Carbon is the primary component of macromolecules, including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates.
Moreover, the molecular structure of carbon allows it to bond in many different ways and with many different things. Carbon has very special bonding properties. The biggest one is its ability to form long chains of carbon. No other elements on the periodic table do this.

Also, all of carbon electrons that are not being used to bond carbon atoms together into chains and rings can be used to form bonds with atoms of several other elements.
HYDROCARBON
- is a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen

- is a hydrocarbon where the carbon atoms are connected by single bonds, and the carbon atoms are saturated
- There is a certain formula in this family [ Cn+H2+2 ] where "n" equal the number of carbons in the molecule.

ALKANE
methane
propane
decane
Determine the name or structure of a given hydrocarbon. Use the given chart.
1. Pentane
2. Octane
3.

4.
Naming Alkanes
1. Name the parent hydrocarbon by locating the longest carbon chain that contains the double bond and name it according to the number of carbons
2. Number the carbons of the parent chain so the double bond carbons have the lowest possible number. If there is a double bond , number it so the first substituent ( Alkyl ) has the lowest number.
3. Write out the full name, numbering the substituents (Alkyl) using greek prefix (di, tri, tetra, etc.)according to their position in the chain and list them in alphabetical order. Indicate the double bond by the number of the first alkane carbon
4. If more than one double bond is present, indicate their position by using the number of the first carbon of each double bond and then write the parent name.
Longest Chain: Hexane
Substituents: CH3- methyl
Name of the compound:
3,3-dimethylhexane
Longest Chain: butane
Substituents: CH3- methyl
Name of the compound:
2,2dimethylbutane
Alkyl
-generally abbreviated with the symbol R, is a functional group or side-chain that, like an alkane
-consists solely of single-bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms, for example a methyl or ethyl group
-The formula for alkyl group is [CnH2n+1]
- ends with -YL
10 Common Products that contain Organic Compounds
ALKENE
- is a hydrocarbon where the carbon atoms can be connected by more than one double bond, and the carbon atoms are unsaturated
- It contain a double bond and ends with -ENE
- The formula is CnH2n
RECALL:
1. Fuel containers or devices using gasoline
Parent name : Longest continuous chain for carbon atoms
* Use greek prefixes to indicate the presence of multiple identical branching group*
2. Nail Polish, Nail Polish Remover
Name & Position of Branching group
+
Indicate where double bond or triple bond located
+
3. Hair Spray
Change ending parent name to -ENE ( double bond) -YNE( triple bond )
4. Colognes/Perfumes


TRY THIS OUT !!!
6. Deodorizers
5. Fabric Cleaners
7. Air Fresheners
Write the Name of Alkyl group and draw the structural formula
8. Paint Thinner
9. Pesticides
10. Rubbing Alcohol
- Hydrocarbon can also contain other atoms, such as HALOGENS (F, Cl,Br,I). Halogen atoms are treated like branching alkyl group
EXAMPLES :
1.
2.
Substituents:

is an atom or group of atoms substituted in place of a hydrogen atom on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon
- Those are Methyl, Ethyl, Flouro, Chloro, Bromo, Iodo
ALKYNE:
- is a hydrocarbon where the carbon atoms can be connected by a triple bond
- The carbon atoms are unsaturated
- The name of the bond ends with -YNE
EXAMPLE:
CH3-CH2- instead of ethANE, change it to ethYNE
CYCLIC:
-is a hydrocarbon where a series of atoms are connected to form a loop or ring.
- The general formula is CnH2(n+1-g) where "g" means the number of rings in the molecule
EXAMPLES:
EXERCISE:
RECALL:
ALKANE - methANE, ethANE, etc.
ALKYL - methYL, ethYL, etc.
ALKENE - methENE, ethENE, etc.
ALKYNE - methYNE, ethYNE, etc.
AROMATIC:
-is a hydrocarbon with alternating double and single bonds between carbon atoms forming rings. The simplest aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene. (C6H6)
- Aromatic compounds are unsaturated
Benzen Ring
TRY THIS OUT !!!
FUNCTIONAL GROUP
- are lexicon-specific groups of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules
For information : Refer to "Organic Compounds: Functional Group Summary" Worksheet
The process of producing esters from the reaction of an alcohol and organic acid
Esters are derived from carboxylic acids. A carboxylic acid contains the -COOH group, and in an ester the hydrogen in this group is replaced by a hydrocarbon group of some kind. We shall just be looking at cases where it is replaced by an alkyl group, but it could equally well be an aryl group (one based on a benzene ring).
What are Esters?
The most commonly discussed ester is ethyl ethanoate. In this case, the hydrogen in the -COOH group has been replaced by an ethyl group. The formula for ethyl ethanoate is:
Notice that the ester is named the opposite way around from the way the formula is written. The "ethanoate" bit comes from ethanoic acid. The "ethyl" bit comes from the ethyl group on the end.
Notice that the acid is named by counting up the total number of carbon atoms in the chain - including the one in the -COOH group. So, for example, CH3CH2COOH is propanoic acid, and CH3CH2COO is the propanoate group.
Esters are produced when carboxylic acids are heated with alcohols in the presence of an acid catalyst. The catalyst is usually concentrated sulphuric acid. Dry hydrogen chloride gas is used in some cases, but these tend to involve aromatic esters (ones containing a benzene ring).
The esterification reaction is both slow and reversible. The equation for the reaction between an acid RCOOH and an alcohol R'OH (where R and R' can be the same or different)
So, for example, if you were making ethyl ethanoate from ethanoic acid and ethanol, the equation would be:
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