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Content

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by

Eleanor Lim

on 23 September 2013

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Content
1. Chapter 5
2. Chapter 6
3. Chapter 7
4. Chapter 8
5. References

Chapter 5
"If you want to test a man's character, give him power." - Abraham Lincoln
Chapter 6
Leadership Attributes
Chapter 7
Leadership Behavior
Chapter 8
Skills for Building Personal Credibility and Influencing Others
Leaders can use power for good or ill, and leader’s personal values and ethical code may be among the most important determinants of how that leader exercises the various sources of power available.

Leadership & ‘Doing the Right Things’
Leadership ‘Doing the Right Things’ – 4 Qualities
Values, Ethics & Morals
Case Study B
Values, Ethics & Morals
Case Study A
What are the right things?
Are they the morally right things?
What are the ethically right things?
The right things for the company to be successful?
Kidder’s Principles for Resolving Ethical Dilemmas
Ways People Avoid Feeling Guilty
Case Study C
Are there Generational Differences in Values?
Are there Generational Differences in Values?
Rushworth Kidder’s 4 Ethical Dilemmas
Truth
versus
Loyalty
Individual
versus
Community
Short-Term
versus
Long-Term
Justice
versus
Mercy
Developmental Levels & Stages of Moral Reasoning
“If you let your wife die, you will get in trouble.”
“If you do happen to get caught, you could give the drug back and not get much of a sentence.”
“If you don’t steal the drug you’d lose your own respect and everyone else’s too.”
Biases affecting moral decisions
Moral Reasoning
Decision-making process

about ethical and unethical behaviors.
Manner by which they

solve

moral problems

Value differences

among individuals often result in different

judgments

regarding

ethical and unethical

behavior

Ethnics and Values -
Based Approaches to Leadership

Ethnics and Values-
Based Approaches to Leadership
Ethnics and Values-
Based Approaches to Leadership
Servant Leadership
The Roles of Ethnics and Values in Organizational Leadership
Reflects

organizational culture

and helps identify and

“gaps”
Helps

set examples
The Roles of Ethnics and Values in Organizational Leadership
Upward Ethical Leadership
The Roles of Ethnics and Values in Organizational Leadership
Principle-Centered Leadership
References
8, B. G., & 2011. (n.d.). Why Leaders Lose Their Way - Bill George - Harvard Business Review. HBR Blog Network - Harvard Business Review. Retrieved September 11, 2013, from http://blogs.hbr.org/hbsfaculty/2011/06/why-leaders-lose-their-way.html

$ Billions In Employer Fraud: Top 10 Cases of 2011 - North Carolina Workers' Compensation ExpertsNorth Carolina Workers' Compensation Experts. (n.d.). North Carolina Workers' Compensation Experts | Published by Jernigan LawNorth Carolina Workers' Compensation Experts | Published by Jernigan Law. Retrieved September 11, 2013, from http://www.ncworkcompjournal.com/2011/12/billions-in-employer-fraud-top-10-cases-of-2011/

Singapore presses embezzlement case against church leaders - Yahoo! News Singapore. (n.d.). Yahoo News Singapore - Latest News & Headlines. Retrieved September 16, 2013, from http://sg.news.yahoo.com/singapore-presses-embezzlement-case-against-church-leaders-100104158.html
Listening
Credibility
Ability to engender trust in others
ABC Model
Effective Stress Management
Improving Creativity
Conduct Meeting
Ways People Avoid Feeling Guilty
Ethnics and Values-
Based Approaches to Leadership
Servant Leadership
The Roles of Ethnics and Values in Organizational Leadership
Leading By Example
What is Personality?
Impression

a person makes on other
Unseen

structure/processes

inside a person that explains

why they behave as such
Traits
Recurring

trends in a person’s

behavior
.
Trait Approach
: Personality means people behave as such due to their strengths of the traits they possess.
Personality Traits
Personality traits are useful concepts for

explaining why people act

fairly consistently between situations.
Predict

Reactions
Explain

Reasons for Behavior
Trait Approach
How a leader’s behavior reflects the interaction between personality traits and situational factors
Situations
Effects of Trait Approach
Relationship between

traits and leadership

is inversely related to a given

situation.
OCEAN Model of Personality
5 Factor Model
O: Openness to experience
C: Conscientiousness
E: Extraversion
A: Agreeableness
N: Neuroticism

Ocean Model of Personality
Personality traits are key components of behavior
Implications of OCEAN
Important for leaders to have insight into their personalities
Implications of OCEAN
Considerable controversy to personality tests
Scores
unrelated
to job performance
Tests are
biased
or
“unethical”
Results can be
faked

Personality Types
Describe differences in people’s behavioural patterns.
Differentiated by identifying personality traits.
A person can either be one or the other types.
Classifying people according to:
Intelligent Leaders
INTELLIGENCE:
A person’s all-around effectiveness in activities directed by thought.
Can be modified through education and experience.
Better & Faster in:
Advantages of OCEAN
Profiling Leaders
Improves Organizational Success
Analytic Intelligence
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Identifies characteristic and behaviors
Allows for understanding of self, others and other educational or occupational choices
Affects judgement towards one another
Triarchic Theory
Focuses on what a leader does when solving complex mental problems
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Four basic bipolar preference dimensions which people can differ:
Implications
No one type is better
than others in leadership effectiveness.
Each has their
strengths and weaknesses
.
Unstable
results.
Not meant to be a system of categorization
that oversimplifies our own and others’ behavior.
Advantages of OCEAN
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Influences:
Leaders & Intelligence
Must leaders be intelligent?
Must intelligent people be leaders?
Practical Intelligence
Creative Intelligence
Measuring & Developing EQ
Creative Intelligence
Implications
High level of practical intelligence
is required in leadership situations where there is
routine
, unchanging or specific in-depth
product or process knowledge
needed.

High level of analytic intelligence
is required in leadership situations where there is a need to
solve ambiguous, complex problems.
Implications
FIGURE 1. Evidence On Average Intelligence Test Scores by Management Level
Curvilinear Relationship
Happens when
differences in analytic intelligence between leader and followers
are too great causing
communications
between them to be
impaired

This causes stresses that can affect the
leader–subordinate interactions
.
Cognitive Resources Theory
Developed to explain the interesting relationships between:
Emotional Intelligence
1.
EQ
is mainly refers to people in
mood, emotion, will, and frustration tolerance
.
2.Can be increase by handling
personal relationship
Implications of Lower EQ
Emotional Intelligence
Assertiveness
The Leadership Pipeline
The model implies: “Those who skip organizational levels often fail to become effective leaders.”
Community Leadership
Building a team of
VOLUNTEERS
to achieve some important
community outcome
No power, little resources and rewards
Introduction
A
leader’s results differentiates them
from another
A
key distinguisher
between an
effective and ineffective
leader is their everyday behavior:
Followers and the situation can also affect leadership behavior
Why Study Leadership Behavior?
Turnover is mostly a manager issue.
"People leave managers. Not companies."
75%
of Employees have Suffered Bad Bosses
Primary
Needs
of Employee:
Early Studies -
Ohio State University
Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ)
Purpose:
Measure different leader behaviors in work settings
Scale:
1,800 questionnaires collapsed into 150 statements
Early Studies -
University of Michigan
Purpose:

Identify leader behaviors that
contributed to effective group performance
Early Studies -
University of Michigan
The Leadership Grid
Two dimensions:
Concern for
people
Concern for
production
The
most effective leaders
are said to have
high concern
for both people and production.
The Leadership Grid
Source: Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse, Leadership Dilemmas—Grid Solutions (Houston: Gulf Publishing, 1991), p. 29. Copyright 1991. Reprinted with permission of Grid International
Types of Models
Organizational Competency Model
Organizational Competency Model
The Hogan and Warrenfelz Model
Allows people to see the
connections
between different competency models
Makes
predictions concerning level of difficulty in changing
different leadership skills/behavior
Points out what
behaviors
leader must
exhibit to be effective
Assessing Leadership Behavior: 360-Degree (Multi-Rater) Feedback
“ Talented people need organizations less than organizations need talented people” - Daniel Pink, Pink Inc.
Sources of 360-Degree Feedback
Overview of the 360-Degree Feedback Research
1. Due to the
popularity
of this tool, you will definitely
receive 360-degree feedback at least once
in your career

2. It must be
built around a competency model
which will describe leadership behaviors

3.
Different competency models reflect different leadership behaviors
that are needed to succeed at individual organization levels
360-Degree Feedback
Summary
Leaders can
benefit from the leadership behavior research
in several ways.
Research has helped to
identify factors
that can
cause high-potential managers to fail.
The Leadership Grid
provides taxonomy
of leader types based on
behavioral orientation.
The
Leadership Pipeline Model
allows organizations to
chart leader progression
by using customized competency models.
Community leadership
allows accomplishment of community oriented goals.
360-Degree feedback
gives leaders feedback useful in
improving
their performance.
Summary
Buckingham, M., & Coffman , C. (1999). First break all the rules: What the world's greatest managers do differently. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Kasha. (2011, February 12). What is the intrapersonal learning style?. Retrieved from http://www.differentiatedinstructionactivities.c
om/2011/02/12/what-is-intrapersonal-learning-style/
OD&M Consulting. (n.d.). People development and training: Competency model. Retrieved from http://www.odmconsulting.com/rs/people-development-training/competency-model.html
Pfeffer, J. (2012, January 19). [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://greeneyezwinkin5.wordpress.com/2012/01/19/jeffrey-pfeffer-leadership-does-it-make-a-difference/
Premji, A. (n.d.). Why employees leave organizations. Retrieved from http://www.citehr.com/1333-why-employees-leave-organisations-azim-premji.html
Ray, L. (Photographer). Relationship behavior and leadership style in the workplace [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://work.chron.com/DM-Resize/photos.demandstudios.com/getty/article/251/4/78631098.jpg?w=600&h=600&keep_ratio=1
Hughes, R. L., Ginnett, R. C., & Curphy, G. J. (1993). Leadership: enhancing the lessons of experience. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
Communication
Intention
Expression
Reception
Interpretation
Problem Solving
The Game of Charades
by Pascale Sharma & Moon JungHwan
The Survey of Organizations
Full transcript