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Ali Garcia

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of Bosnia

Ending the War
NATO bombing: Aug. 1995
Dayton Peace Agreement: Dec. 1995

Establishing Justice
International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia (ICTY)
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Peace Today Aftermath of Genocide Presented by:
Ali, Gerald, & Kasi
Vice President Al Gore:
“Why is this happening and we’re not doing anything? My daughter is surprised the world is allowing his to happen. I am, too.

I want you to tell me how to answer her – my own daughter.” Intervention after Srebrenica Ending the War
NATO bombing: Aug. 1995
Dayton Peace Agreement: Dec. 1995

Establishing Justice
International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia (ICTY)
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Peace Today Aftermath of Genocide ICTY: Key Facts and Figures Bosniak Identity was formed by the formation of the "Bogomilist" Church.
Bogomil beliefs viewed as "Heretic"
Under the rule of King Tvrtko, Bosnia became a safe haven for the Bogomil heretics.
Additionally, Bosnia was fully recognized as a major State in the region when Tvrtko crowned himself King of Bosnia and Serbia in 1377 ICTY Genocide Convictions Vidoje Blagojević
Dragan Obrenović

Complicity in genocide

15-17 years in prison

Early release in 2012 Radislav Krstić

First genocide conviction

35 years in prison Vujadin Popović, et al.

Five genocide convictions

Currently on appeal “Big Fish”: Key ICTY Indictments Ratko Mladić

Arrested in 2011
Trial in progress Radovan Karadžić

Arrested in 2008
Trial in progress Slobodan Milošević

Died on trial in 2006
No conviction ICTY continues through 2016

EU peacekeepers mandated through November 2013

DPA “enshrined the nationalism”

No active conflict, but tenuous peace

Reconciliation remains a challenge Bosnia Today “The most important lesson of Srebrenica—

that we must recognize evil
for what it is,
and confront it
not with expediency and
compromise but with
implacable resistance

—has yet to be fully learnt and applied.”

UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, 2000 War Crimes Chamber at Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina established in 2005

2008 Kravica decision confirmed genocide occurred in country with fall of Srebrenica
7 convicted
4 acquitted

Mixed response to efficacy of domestic trials vs. international courts National Justice International Justice One of the first engagement of Serbian forces from outside Bosnia occurred on April 2nd and 3rd, when an armed confrontation between Muslims and local Serb territorial units too place. However, most books disregard this event and say the genocide began on April 7, 1992 when the United States and the European Commission acknowledged Bosnia as independent from Yugoslavia. Ottoman Conquest The siege of Sarajevo is the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare and one of the worst episodes during the Bosnian Genocide. Serb forces controlled Sarajevo from April 5th 1992 to February 29th 1996. In Sarajevo it was estimated that “more then 1000 Serb shells a day were falling on the city at the height of the bombardment” (140 Burg, Shoup). Established by UN Security Council in 1993
Criminal responsibility
Individual parties
Krstić was first genocide conviction ever
Few genocide convictions to date; contained to Srebrenica
Max of life sentence Established by UN Charter in 1945
International responsibility
State parties
Bosnia first genocide case to progress at ICJ
Court found Serbia not responsible for genocide at Srebrenica
No reparations ICTY ICJ Srebrenica had a primary strategic importance to the Serbs. In early 1992 the Serb forces took control of Srebrenica, killing and expelling most Bosniak civilians.
In 1993 the United Nations declared Srebrenica a safe area, passing Resolution 819.
However, by 1995 the existence of Muslim control came to an end. Each year after the resolution fewer supply convoys made it through to the enclave. As the resources dwindled further and forces started to run low on ammunition Muslim control deteriorated. Most of the execution sites were north of Srebrenica, along the Drina River. The execution sites included a football field in Bratunac, several meadows and fields near Vlasenica and Nova Kasaba, a warehouse in Kravica, a factory in Karakaj, a school in Orahovac, a dirt road in the Cerska Valley, and a cultural centre in Pilica. The Prijedor massacre was the second largest massacre committed after the Srebrenica genocide. Around 5,200 Bosniaks and Croats were killed during this massacre.

Personal interview with Samir Klipic In 1995, after the capture of Zepa and the bombing in the Sarajevo market the international community began to respond to the ongoing conflict and its ever-increasing death toll. Lessons Following the death of King Tvrtko in Bosnia began a long period of decline .
Bosnia constantly fell prey of either Hungarian or Ottoman aggression before being finally overrun by the Ottomans in 1463.
Bogomils and nobility of medieval Bosnia who converted to Islam and became known as Bosniaks.
During the late 16th and early 17th century, Bosniaks became an absolute majority in Bosnia Bosnian Origins Hitler's Bosnia On April 10, 1941, Nazi Germany proclaimed a new “Independent State if Croatia” or NDH, incorporating the whole of Bosnia.

NDH leaders embarked on a campaign to exterminate Serbs, Jews, Gypsies, Croats who opposed the regime, communists, and large number of Josip Broz Tito’s Partisans by setting up a number of death camps – including Jasenovac Killing Camp which was completely ran by Croatians with the purpose of exterminating Serbs The Ustashe In Cratia Bosniak Elites sharply divided in their loyalties.
Some joined the communist Partisans under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito; others joined the Ustashe government in Croatia and aided in murder of thousands of Serbs.
According to the United States Holocaust Museum, between 320,000 to 340,000 ethnic Serbs were murdered by the Ustashe during World War II Yugoslavia Under Tito Communist Partisans, under the command of Josip Broz Tito, emerged victorious after the war.
On November 1945, the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia was formed composed of six republics: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia, along with two autonomous territories within Serbia – Vojvodina and Kosovo
Tito's idoelogy of "Brotherhood and Unity" dominated the whole of Yugoslavia until his death.
Ethnic nationalism was prohibited and was made punishable by death Death of a Nation In 1987, Slobodan Milosevic, was sent to Kosovo to mediate a dispute between the ethnic Albanians and the Serbs.

Milosevic's course of action was set as he addressed the ethnic Serbs: “No one will ever dare beat you again”

Milosevic had finally legitimized the venting of Serb ethnic grievances in Kosovo, thus initiating an euphoric movement of Serb Nationalism throughout Serbia Road Towards Incependence In September and October of 1989, Slovenia drafted and passed a new Slovenian constitution, giving itself legislative sovereignty and its right to secede.
In January 1990 the Slovenian Communists walked out of the Yugoslav Communist Party Congress,
Both Slovenian and Croatia held multi-party elections in the spring of 1990.
Slovenia declared its Independence on June 25, 1991 - a ten-day war followed with Yugoslavia Slovenian President Milan Kučan Road Towards Incependence Croatia followed Slovenia's footsteps and declared its independence.
Civil Unrest Erupted in the Krajina region where most Serb Croats Lived.
Croatian Serbs rioted the roads and towns in protest starting the "Log Revolution" by blocking up Croatian Roads, thus severely damaging tourism Road Towards Incependence Bosnia declared its sovereignty in October 1991 and organized a referendum on independence in March 1992.
The decision of the Parliament of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia on holding the referendum was taken after the majority of Bosnian Serb members had left the assembly in protest. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic faced a terrible choice of either following in Croatia’s footsteps or remaining in a Serb-dominated Yugoslavia.
Izetbegovic chose to declare independence on March 5, 1992 though this time Bosnia was on its own to fight Serb aggression. President Izetbegovic
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