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Copy of The History of Simple Machines
Transcript of Copy of The History of Simple Machines
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The History of Simple Machines
The first time the idea of "simple machines" was recognized around 3rd century BC, by Archimedes, the Greek philosopher. His main focus was lever, pulley, and screw and he was also the first to grasp the concept of mechanical advantage in the lever.
Later Greek philosophers discovered wedge and wheel and axle, which put with the first three was considered "the classic five simple machines."
Although the most simple, inclined plane was the last to the list of six simple machines, as it was not recognized as one until the Renaissance.
Wheel and Axle
The screw was one of the last of the six simple machines to be invented. Earning it's fame in Greece, it was first used as a screw press and the Archimedes screw. Although Archimedes has the credit for it being invented, there has been signs that it may have actually been started in ancient Egypt.
It was commonly used to move things, and in the 15th century, it was used in clocks.
Inclined planes have been used many times throughout history, starting even back in prehistoric times. It was not percieved as a machine, as it was looked on as not a mechanical aspect. This was why it did not become a "simple machine" until the Renissance.
It is said that inclined planes were used to transport the rocks used in Stonehenge.
By Amanda Roth
The first writing on levers was provided by Archimedes. He was the first to state the mathmatical principles of the lever.
In ancient Egypt, is assumed that levers were a common device; constructors used the lever to lift obelisks 100 tons and heavier.
It is rumored that Mesopatamians in 1500 BC used them, but the first compound pulley was invented by Archimedes.
The Hero of Alexandria classified it as one of the six machines to lift weights.
Simple Machines Today
The origin of the wedge is not well known, but there are many signs in history that show it was commonly used.
Greek sculptures, arrowheads and chopped wood are a few good examples. For all these, a wedge machine would have been used. Chisels are a type of wedge, and were used to make sculpture. An ax is a wedge that has been used commonly in history and still is. Native Americans would have used something similar to a chisel to make arrowheads.
The lever is used as scissors, crowbars, bottle openers, and is even used on a playground; the seesaw.
The wheel and axle is used as gears, in cars, in elevators, and many more.
The pulley can be found in blinds, flagpoles, and cranes.
The incline plane is used as ramps, slanted roads, paths up/down hills, and even as a slide on a playground.
The wedge is used as knives, nails, chisels, scissors, and axes.
The screw is commonly used to hold things together, and to move things, like water.
The earliest depiction of the wheel and it's axel comes from 3500-3000 BC, in Poland. The oldest known example was found in Slovenia, in 2002.
It was commonly used to lift weights, and used with the pulley in a device called a windlass.