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A Tour through the Circulatory System

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Trevor Heard

on 11 March 2013

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Transcript of A Tour through the Circulatory System

Major Blood Vessels of the Body A tour through the Circulatory System The Circulatory System: The circulatory system is composed of the heart, blood, and a network of blood vessels: These components, together with the lungs, make up our cardiovascular system -The heart is responsible for pumping the blood through the numerous blood vessels found throughout the body -The blood carries nutrients and oxygen to cells, and carries away carbon dioxide and wastes -The blood vessels branch out from the heart and carry the blood to and from every cell in our bodies Types of Blood Vessels: Arteries: Function: Transport blood away from the heart
Structure: Thick, muscular, elastic walls
Location: Deep beneath the skin, usually along bones Veins: Function: Transport blood back to the heart
Structure: Thin walls, contain valves
Location: Often near the surface, surrounded by skeletal muscle Capillaries: Function: Interconnect arteries to veins
Structure: Very thin walls (1 cell thick)
Location: Everywhere, within a few cells of each other -Capillaries have sphincter muscles that can dilate and constrict the vessel
-If all capillaries were open, blood pressure would decrease
-If all capillaries were closed, blood pressure would increase Arterioles and Venules: All the same features of arteries and veins apply to arterioles and venules, but on a smaller scale
Arterioles leading to a particular area often equipped with sphincter muscles which can dilate or constrict to regulate blood pressure Relationship between velocity of blood, blood pressure, and size of blood vessels: Paths in the Circulatory System: The circulatory system has two major pathways, or circuits: The Pulmonary Circuit circulates blood through the lungs, returning oxygenated blood to the heart
The Systemic Circuit services oxygen rich blood to the body tissues Aorta: This is the major artery carrying oxygen rich blood out of the heart
Leaves the left ventricle, loops over top of the heart (aortic arch), and descends along the inside of the backbone Function: Branches from this blood vessel feed the rest of the body Coronary Artery: The first branches off the aorta are the coronary arteries
These relatively small blood vessels can be seen on the surface of the heart Function: Feeds the heart muscle (the heart does not receive nutrients from the blood that travels through it because the muscle is too thick, and the blood is traveling to fast)
The cardiac veins takes the "spent blood" back to the heart Carotid Arteries: These branches off the aortic arch take blood to the head, including the brain Function: These arteries are highly specialized
They contain numerous types of nerve endings:
Chemoreceptors detect oxygen content
Pressure receptors detect blood pressure changes
These receptors maintain homeostasis, the tendency towards a stable equilibrium in the body Jugular Veins: The match for the Carotid Arteries
They do not contain valves, blood is returned to the heart by gravity Function: Conduct blood out of the head into the Superior Vena Cava, (or Anterior Vena Cava, the largest vein in the body) Subclavian Arteries and Veins: Also branch from the Aorta
travels under the Clavicle (collarbone) Function: Branch to feed the arms (Brachial Arteries)
Subclavian veins return blood from the arms Mesenteric Arteries: Mesenteric Arteries: These arteries branch off the Aorta as it travels downward (posteriorly)
They go to the intestines where they branch off into capillaries in the villi Function: Feeding the organs of the digestive system
Returning newly digested nutrients to the body Hepatic Portal Vein: Hepatic Portal Vein: Match to the Mesenteric Arteries
Hepatic means liver
Portal indicates that there is a capillary bed at both ends of it Function: Brings blood from the Intestines to the Liver Hepatic Vein: Once the liver is done with the blood, it is returned to the venous system by the Hepatic Vein Function: Returns blood from the Liver to the Inferior Vena Cava (Posterior Vena Cava) Renal Arteries and Veins: The Renal Arteries branch of the Aorta as it passes through the lumbar region of the body Function: Arteries take blood to the kidneys, while the veins bring blood back to the Posterior Vena Cava Iliac Arteries and Veins: When the Dorsal (lower) Aorta gets to the pelvic area, it branches into two Iliac Arteries; one down each leg
Off the Iliac Arteries is another branch that feeds the upper leg, called the Femoral Artery Function: To supply the legs with oxygenated blood, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the Posterior Vena Cava The Systemic Circuit Posterior and Anterior Vena Cava: Large vein that collects all the deoxygenated blood from smaller veins, and brings it to the heart's right atrium
The largest vein in the body Function: Anterior Vena Cava collects blood from the Jugular and Subclavian Veins
Posterior Vena Cava collects blood from the lower body The Pulmonary Circuit Pulmonary Veins and Arteries: The Pulmonary Circuit is comprised of the Pulmonary Trunk and arteries that deal strictly with the Heart and Lungs
Only artery in the body that carries deoxygenated blood
Only vein in the body that carries oxygenated blood Pulmonary Veins and Arteries: Function: The artery brings deoxygenated blood to the lungs to get oxygen for the rest of the body
The vein returns oxygenated blood back to the Heart's Left Atrium Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation: Pulmonary Circuit: Path that goes to and from the Lungs
Begins at Right Ventricle through the Pulmonary Trunk-->Pulmonary Arteries-->Lung Capillaries--> Pulmonary Veins--> Left Atrium
Carries carbon dioxide filled blood to the lungs for cleaning
Returns oxygen rich blood back to the heart Systemic Circuit: Path from Left Ventricle to body, and back to the Right Atrium of the Heart
Carries oxygen rich blood to body tissues
Returns carbon dioxide rich blood to the Heart Capillary Fluid Exchange: (see video) http://msjensen.cehd.umn.edu/1135/Links/Animations/Flash/0029-swf_fluid_exchange.swf Blood is oxygenated as it passes through the lung tissue
Oxygen diffuses into the blood through the thin walled tissues of the lung capillaries (air oxygen concentration higher than in blood
Once in the blood, oxygen bonds with hemoglobin (Fe containing protein, part of the RBC)
A single hemoglobin molecule has 4 bonding sites for oxygen, and is called "oxyhemoglobin" when transporting oxygen in the blood Gas Exchange in the body tissues: The blood reaches arterioles, and then the capillaries:
blood pressure decreases
nutrients and oxygen diffuse into the tissues
larger particles stay in blood (too big to get out)
These large particles make the blood hypertonic to the tissues
As a result, water from tissues is drawn back into the venule side of the capillary bed
When fluid returns it carries carbon dioxide and waste with it Gas Exchange in the Lungs: Blood Pressure: Blood pressure on arteriole side of capillary bed is higher than osmotic pressure, and will try to push substances out of the blood
Osmotic pressure pushes substances into the blood
Since blood pressure > osmotic pressure, oxygen, glucose, and water are taken from the blood, and put into the tissues Blood pressure on the venule side of the capillary bed is lower than the osmotic pressure, and therefore, wastes such as carbon dioxide, ammonia, and water forced into the blood Fetal Circulation System: (see video) http://www.indiana.edu/~anat550/cvanim/fetcirc/fetcirc.html Fetal systems FOUR features not present in adult systems: 1) Oval Openings: An opening between the two atria of the Heart
Covered by a flap of tissue that acts like a valve
blood flows directly from right atrium to the left atrium
bypassing the lungs, which do not work yet 2) Arterial Duct: A connection between the Pulmonary Artery and the Aorta
Blood flows from the Pulmonary Artery to the Aorta, again bypassing the lungs 3) Umbilical Artery and Vein: Umbilical Artery takes waste (Carbon Dioxide and Urea) to the Placenta
Umbilical Vein takes nutrients (Oxygen and Amino Acids) to the Fetus from the Placenta 4) Venous Duct: A connection between the Umbilical Vein and the Vena Cava
Blood from the Placenta passes directly into the liver through this duct and from there, to the right atrium of the Heart
Do you remember the path? PATH OF A BLOOD CELL THROUGH THE BODY
Start in the Left Ventricle and go through the Circulatory System
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