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The science behind guitar.....

Kyle Tan

on 18 June 2013

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Transcript of Guitar

By Kyle Tan

Types of Guitars
the hollow inside allows the vibrations from the strings to be amplified
the vibrations from the strings travel electronically through pick-ups into the amp and speaker
similar to acoustic, but with nylon strings, producing more mellow sounds
Parts of a Guitar
Guitar Parts

The Science of Guitar and Music

So, what is a guitar?
"A long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, ribs, and a flat back, most often with incurved sides" .
The guitar is one of today's most popular instruments, and it is a string instrument.
Guitars are the primary instrument in many genres of music, including country, blues, classical, jazz, folk, metal, rock, etc.
There are three main types of guitar...
Guitars are part of the chordophone family, which include instruments that make music by vibrating strings
The oldest guitar-like instrument dates back to 3500 years ago. It belonged to the egyptian singer Har-Mose.
Har-Mose was buried with his tanbur, close to the tomb of Sen-Mut, the architect of Queen Hatshepsut's temple.
During the Renaissance period, the four-course guitar had become dominant in most of Europe
(6-string guitar by George Louis Panormo, 1832)
By the 19th century, modern 6 course guitar started taking shape....
Each type of guitar has different parts:
Sound Waves
Helmholtz Resonance
Physics of Music
Sound is type of longitudinal wave in which the energy moves in the same direction as the wave.
Sound carries energy
Any Questions!?
Sound waves are also known as compression waves; in compressions, particles are crowded together, while in rarefactions, particles are spread apart.
Wavelength; this is the distance from the crest of one wave to the crest of the next: one full cycle
Frequency; cycles per second, which determines the pitch of a sound
Amplitude; the amount of energy in a sound wave or the height of the wave, which determines the loudness of a sound.
Pleasant sounds always have repeated patterns.
Noisy sounds always have irregular patterns.
You give energy to the string when you make it vibrate.....The energy is transferred from you to the guitar strings
The vibration affects the pitch, or the frequency.
The pitch of vibration is affected by 4 things,: Mass, Tension, Length, and the vibration mode.
Guitar strings are usually made from either nylon or steel, nickel, and bronze.
Mass is simply how much mass or matter is in a string. (Thickness-gauge). For steel strings, the strings get thicker as the pitch gets lower. For nylon strings, pitch is determined by density instead of thickness.
Tension is the tightness for a string. Tighter strings give higher pitch.(Tuning pegs)
Length is the stretch of the string that is able to vibrate. Shortening the string gives higher pitch. (Frets.)
Vibration mode has to do with standing waves and harmonics
The body is the key to making sound in a guitar
The body helps to amplify the sound of the strings so sound could be heard.
The strings vibrate when being plucked, which transfers the mechanical energy to the guitar bridge that is attached to the guitar body.
The mechanical energy of the bridge causes the top plate/soundboard to vibrate too.
The top plate/soundboard of the guitar vibrates and it also causes the air inside the body of the guitar to vibrate. As the air molecules that are closest to the soundboard start vibrating they bump into the other particles around them and they start to vibrate and cause others to vibrate too. (Domino)
The vibration of air particles inside the body have the same frequency, producing the sound that we hear. (A certain note.)
The purpose of the soundhole is for sound to escape from the inside of a guitar’s body. We would not be able to hear the sound without the soundhole. (Diffraction)
Resonance is "when one object vibrating at the same natural frequency of a second object forces that second object into vibrational motion."
Helmholtz resonance is air resonance inside a container of gas (such as air) with an open hole. (something open that allows the sound to escape.)
The way that Helmholtz resonance works is that when you compress air (such as blowing into it), it increases it's pressure, so it will try to expand back to its original form.
You can force the air a little way down by blowing air, thereby it compress the air inside too.
created by certain ratios of frequencies, called partials
coinciding partials create a pleasant note, which carries a happy or peaceful tone
created by non-coincidental partials
carry an upset tone, creating tension and complexity
when sounds with different frequencies interfere with each other, it creates periodic changes in volume called "beats"
the rate of these volume variations is the difference between the two frequencies
binaural beats are when the left and right ear hear different tones; although those tones don't physically interact, the brain is able to calculate beats anyway
interference is when two waves overlap and cause each other to change
they create a new wave with an increased or decreased amplitude based on where the wavelengths overlap
interference allows many different effects to be created, which are the basis for music
This is where music gets it's richness and color. -chords
Frequency and Notes

Standard Tuning
E2 - 82.4 -1 cycle
A2- 110-1 and ⅓ cycles
D3 - 146.8- 1¾ cycles
G3 - 196-2 and ⅜ cycles
B3 - 246.9-3 cycles
E4 - 329.6-4 cycles
C0 16.35 2100.
C#0/Db0 17.32 1990.
D0 18.35 1870.
D#0/Eb0 19.45 1770.
E0 20.60 1670.
F0 21.83 1580.
F#0/Gb0 23.12 1490.
G0 24.50 1400.
G#0/Ab0 25.96 1320.
A0 27.50 1250.
A#0/Bb0 29.14 1180.
B0 30.87 1110.
C1 32.70 1050.
C#1/Db1 34.65 996.
D1 36.71 940.
D#1/Eb1 38.89 887.
E1 41.20 837.
F1 43.65 790.
F#1/Gb1 46.25 746.

G1 49.00 704.
G#1/Ab1 51.91 665.
A1 55.00 627.
A#1/Bb1 58.27 592.
B1 61.74 559.
C2 65.41 527.
C#2/Db2 69.30 498.
D2 73.42 470.
D#2/Eb2 77.78 444.
E2 82.41 419.
F2 87.31 395.
F#2/Gb2 92.50 373.
G2 98.00 352.
G#2/Ab2 103.83 332.
A2 110.00 314.
A#2/Bb2 116.54 296.
B2 123.47 279.
C3 130.81 264.
C#3/Db3 138.59 249.
D3 146.83 235.
D#3/Eb3 155.56 222.
E3 164.81 209.
F3 174.61 198.
F#3/Gb3 185.00 186.
G3 196.00 176.
G#3/Ab3 207.65 166.
A3 220.00 157.
A#3/Bb3 233.08 148.

B3 246.94 140.
C4 261.63 132.
C#4/Db4 277.18 124.
D4 293.66 117.
D#4/Eb4 311.13 111.
E4 329.63 105.
F4 349.23 98.8
F#4/Gb4 369.99 93.2
G4 392.00 88.0
G#4/Ab4 415.30 83.1
A4 440.00 78.4
A#4/Bb4 466.16 74.0
B4 493.88 69.9
C5 523.25 65.9
C#5/Db5 554.37 62.2
D5 587.33 58.7
D#5/Eb5 622.25 55.4
E5 659.26 52.3
F5 698.46 49.4
F#5/Gb5 739.99 46.6
G5 783.99 44.0
G#5/Ab5 830.61 41.5
A5 880.00 39.2
A#5/Bb5 932.33 37.0
B5 987.77 34.9
C6 1046.50 33.0
C#6/Db6 1108.73 31.1
D6 1174.66 29.4
D#6/Eb6 1244.51 27.7
E6 1318.51 26.2
F6 1396.91 24.7
F#6/Gb6 1479.98 23.3
G6 1567.98 22.0
G#6/Ab6 1661.22 20.8
A6 1760.00 19.6
A#6/Bb6 1864.66 18.5
B6 1975.53 17.5
C7 2093.00 16.5
C#7/Db7 2217.46 15.6
D7 2349.32 14.7
D#7/Eb7 2489.02 13.9
E7 2637.02 13.1
F7 2793.83 12.3
F#7/Gb7 2959.96 11.7
G7 3135.96 11.0
G#7/Ab7 3322.44 10.4
A7 3520.00 9.8
A#7/Bb7 3729.31 9.3
B7 3951.07 8.7
C8 4186.01 8.2
C#8/Db8 4434.92 7.8
D8 4698.64 7.3
D#8/Eb8 4978.03 6.9

The lowest note on a guitar is E2 and the highest is E6
Full transcript