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Psych 193 Presentation

A report for Psychology 193: Discourse, Commitment and Cool; Clark University; Professor Michael Bamberg ... Chapter 4: Animals and human language, Chapter 5: The sounds of language, & Chapter 6: The sound patterns of language
by

Cami Ferreol

on 26 September 2013

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Transcript of Psych 193 Presentation

- airflow move around both sides of the tongue as the tongue tip makes contact back behind the alveolar ridge
- all voiced
example:
led and red
symbols:
[l] and [r]

- produced by lowering soft palate or velum redirecting airflow out the nose instead
- all voiced
example:
morning, knitting and name
symbols:
[m], [n], and [ ŋ]

-when glottis is completely closed very briefly then released. It has no written form.
example: speaking with a cockney accent, say butter or bottle (don’t pronounce tt)
symbol: [ʔ ]

- tongue tip behind upper front teeth
example:
initial sound of thin and final sound of bath (voiceless) but bathe is a voiced dental
symbols:
voiced - [ θθθ]
voiceless - [ ]

• using set of plastic shapes
• 1960s
• Ann and David Premack and chimp, Sarah
• plastic shapes represented “words”
arranged them to build “sentences”
associated shapes with objects or actions

• raising an animal as if it were a child AND using ASL
• 1966
• Beatrix and Allen Gardner and chimp, Washoe
• always encouraged to use signs
3 ½ years: used signs for 100+ words
understood even more
produced simple sentences
produced own signs
held Q&A conversations

PSYCH
193
:

DISCOURSE, COMMITMENT AND COOL
A REPORT FOR
by:
Cami
Ferreol

&
Heather
Mannarino

CHAPTER 4:
ANIMALS
and
HUMAN LANGUAGE
HUMAN
Language
distinct from "languages" of other creatures
unique form of communication
yet there is spoken language directed
by

gt
humans
t
animals
to horses -
to dogs -

by
to
"Woah"
"Heel"
will stop
will follow
various spoken commands to circus animals
Can understand language?
non-humans
human
No.
Animals produce behavior in response to a particular sound stimulus,
but does not the meaning of words,

nor can animals human language

understand
produce
TEACHING
Chimpanzees
1.
• raising an animal and child together
• 1930s
• Luella and Winthrop Kellogg and chimp, Gua
• raised infant chimp and infant son

UNDERSTOOD a hundred words,
PRODUCED/SAID no words.

when:
what:
who:
GUA
2.
• raising an animal as if it were a child
• 1940s
• scientists, Catherine and Keith Hayes and chimp, Viki
• get Viki to SAY English words by shaping her mouth
managed to produce some poorly articulated versions

REMARKABLE
when:
what:
who:
VIKI
technique:
technique:
3.
when:
what:
who:
WASHOE
technique:
4.
when:
what:
who:
SARAH
technique:
6.
• using ASL (with records and videotaping)
• Herbert Terrace and chimp, Nim Chimpsky
• over 2 years
produced a number of single-word signs
developed two-word combinations

what:
who:
NIM CHIMPSKY
technique:
5.
• using artificial language
• Duane Rumbaugh and chimp, Lana
• language called Yerkish (set of symbols)
pressed correct symbols in correct order
what:
who:
LANA
technique:
"used logographic codes"
only superficially resembled the use of language
SKEPTICISM: no true UNDERSTANDING
ARGUMENT BY TERRACE:
did not interaction,
merely by repeating
no expansion
signing is a linguistic behavior
initiate
responded
not
TEACHING ANIMALS
other
CLEVER HANS
1.
German horse
answered arithmetical questions using hoofbeats
tap out letters of the alphabet
BUT actually responding to visual cues
dolphins
developed a means of signaling
tell each other, through an opaque barrier, how both could get a fish snack
over thousands of trials, dolphins inevitably got the fish
BUT their behavior consisted of conditioned responses
BUZZ & DORIS
2.
THE CONTROVERSY
• EXPLANATION TO LANGUAGE-LIKE
d
BEHAVIOR IN ANIMALS
unwitting cues by human trainers and the conditioned response behavior of animals
• Washoe’s foster parents this
...was capable of taking part in interaction using a symbol system chosen by humans, not chimpanzees
....was NOT capable of performing linguistically on a level comparable to a human child at the same stage of development
Washoe
could choose correct signs in the absence of humans
claim Terrace treated Nim like an animal and not a child
stressed need for domestic environment
denied
WE DO NOT HAVE A TOTALLY AND
DEFINITION OF WHAT COUNTS AS USING LANGUAGE
OBJECTIVE
NON-CONTROVERSIAL
"
"
We debunk Noam Chomsky's claim,
can
“acquisition of even the barest rudiments of language is quite beyond the capacities of an otherwise intelligent ape”
CHAPTER 5:
SOUNDS
of
LANGUAGE

●sounds in the English language don’t always match up with letters in written English
●created a to represent sounds

phonetic alphabet
characteristics of speech sounds

articulatory (how speech sounds are made) and
acoustic (physical properties of speech as sound waves in the air)

definition:
types:
VOICED

VOICELESS
●speech sounds
air being pushed up from lungs through the trachea to the larynx where your vocal chords are

vocal chords are spread apart
vocal chords are drawn together
ex. and
ex. and
z
v
s
f
vs.
PLACES

Articulation
of
●tongue, mouth and shape of oral cavity changes the articulation of sound
the location inside the mouth
what parts of the mouth constrict
BILABIALS
- sounds using both lips
example:
pat, bat, vat, way, walk, and world
symbols:
voiced - [p]
voiceless - [b], [m], and [w]

LABIODENTALS
- upper teeth and lower lip
example
initials sounds of fat and vat and the final sounds of safe and save
symbols:
voiced - [v]
voiceless - [f]

DENTALS
ALVEOLARS
- front part of tongue on alveolar ridge (immediately behind upper teeth)
example:
initial sounds of top, sit (voiceless), dip, zoo, nut, knot, lap, lit, right and the final sounds of raise (voiced)
symbols:
voiceless - [t], [s]
voiced - [d], [z], [n], [l], [r]

ALVEO-PALATALS
- tongue at front part of palate (hard roof of mouth) near alveolar ridge
example:
(voiceless) initial sounds of shoot, child, and the beginning and end of shoe-brush and church. (voiced) treasure, pleasure, rouge, judge, george, you, yet
symbols:
voiceless - [ ] and [ ]
voiced - [ ], [y], and [j]

VELARS
- back of tongue against velum
(aka soft palate - behind hard palate)
example:
(voiceless) kid, kill, car, cold, cook, gun, give and final sounds of bag, mug, plague. (voiced) final sounds of sing, sang, tongue, bang
symbols:
voiceless - [k]
voiced - [g] and [ŋ ]

GLOTTALS
- no tongue or other parts of mouth used
example:
(voiceless) have, whose, house
symbols:
voiceless - [h]

GLOTTAL STOP
example:
symbols:
example:
symbols:
example:
symbols:
example:
symbols:
example:
symbols:
example:
symbols:
example:
symbols:
- combining a brief stop of the airstream with an obstructed release of air which causes some friction between vocal chords
example:
beginning of the word cheap is a voiceless affricate and the word jeep is a voiced affricate
symbols:
[j] and [ č]

MANNER

Articulation
of
STOPS
- stopping airstream and letting it go abruptly
example:
the [t] sound in ten is a voiceless alveolar stop, bed is a voiced stop
symbols:
[p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g], [ʔ ]

FRICATIVES
- creating friction by blocking airstream by creating a narrow opening between the vocal chords and pushing the air through that
example:
those is a voiced fricative, and fish is a voiceless fricative
symbols:
[f], [v], [s], [z], [θ ], [ ], [ ], and [ ]

AFFRICATES
NASALS
LIQUIDS
GLIDES
- produced by tongue moving or “gliding” to or from a position associated with a neighboring vowel sound
- all voiced
example:
we, wet, you, yes
symbols:
[w] and [y]

example:
symbols:
example:
symbols:
example:
symbols:
example:
symbols:
example:
symbols:
example:
symbols:
differentiating between sounds by the way they are articulated, or pronounced
VOWELS
●produced with free airflow

tongue’s shape influences the sound of each vowel
DIPHTHONGS
- begin with a vowel and end with a glide
- move from one vocalic position to another

vowels also change depending
on the English dialect
T
H
E

CHAPTER 6:
SOUND
PATTERNS
Language
Language
OF
THE
● every individual has a different vocal tract
thousands of physically different ways someone can say
"me"
...how to recognize them?
PHONOLOGY
● of speech sounds in a language
● aspect of sounds in language, not physical
allows us to in the actual physical sounds
systems and patterns
abstract
distinguish meaning
PHONEMES
it’s a sound type indicated with slashes
/t/ vs. [t]
when substituting one sound for another - change in meaning and then the two sounds represent different phonemes
●when words share similar sound features - members of a natural class of sounds
example:
meaning:
PHONES AND ALLOPHONES
can be different phonetic realizations of any phoneme
called
when there are two phones to create a single phoneme
called
● substituting allophones results in different pronunciations of the same word while substituting phoneme will result in a new word
MINIMAL PAIRS/SETS
identical except for one contrast in phoneme in the same position are called
pat and bat
●group of words is changes one phoneme (same position) are called
feat, fit, fate, fought, foot
definite patterns to sound combinations
●accidental gaps
big, pig, fig, rig, dig, wig

example:
example:
minimal pairs
minimal sets
lig and vig aren’t included because they aren’t english words but due to our pattern of sounds in English, they can be considered acceptable
●(while a phoneme is an abstract unit of sound)
phones
allophones
ASSIMILATION
caused by ease of articulation
nasal
pin or pan
ordinary talk, vowel may no longer be stressed
most common phrase this occurs with is and
ELISION
the omission of a sound segment which would be present in the deliberate pronunciation of a word in isolation
example:
“I can go”
“you and me"
found in casual form of speaking
vowels tend to disappear most, but and

the in friendship
the middle in interest
the in cabinet
the in aspects
● two phonemes occur in sequence and some aspect of one phoneme is taken by the other
distinguishing sounds in language
examples:
meaning:
meaning:
d,t, k's
d
e
i
t
SOURCES:
Photos from:
http://scienceblogs.com/observations/wp-content/blogs.dir/348/files/2012/04/i-8c66c4d51330345ea25f9764619ec10e-human-evolution.gif - Christie Wilcox
http://www.knowledgeshift.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/two-people-talking-b-and-w-270x300.jpg - knowledgeshift.net
http://www.clker.com/cliparts/4/T/L/t/R/i/chimpanzee-md.png - Mohamed Ibrahim
http://media.madsciencemuseum.com.s3.amazonaws.com/gua01.jpg - madsciencemuseum.com
http://imgc.allpostersimages.com/images/P-473-488-90/60/6038/N2TB100Z/posters/mrs-keith-j-hayes-testing-viki-the-chimpanzee-s-imitative-abilities.jpg - allposters.com
http://www.igs.net/~pballan/Munn71C4-10.jpg - igs.net
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/terrace/w1001/readings/premack.pdf - Ann James Premack, David Premack (Teaching Language to an Ape)
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwlrc/Media/Images/LAC/lana.gif - Charles Menzel
Project Nim trailer August 2011 (from YouTube channel of Substance Publicity)
http://www.paranexus.org/useruploads/images/clever_hans.jpg - Brian Parsons
http://wolvesonceroamed.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/nim-signing.jpg - wolvesonceroamed.com
http://images2.fanpop.com/images/photos/6900000/Cute-dolphins-dolphins-6939943-600-379.jpg - fanpop.com
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_18.png/1104px-Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_18.png - R.Harris
http://www.culturalzest.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/voice-400x250.jpg Jan Jacob Mekes
http://emedia.leeward.hawaii.edu/hurley/Ling102web/mod3_speaking/mod3docs/3_images/midsagittal_bw.jpg - emedia.leeward.hawaii.edu
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-bmMQs9OMHwA/T5YwmvEt62I/AAAAAAAAAEQ/jFKepTJDV9g/s1600/1000px-Cardinal_vowel_tongue_position-front-wide_svg.jpg - englishinvancouver.blogspot.com
http://people.umass.edu/neb/ConsonantChart.GIF - people.umass.edu
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