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Transcript of Kingdoms
and the increasing complexity of systems. a. Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. b. Compare how structures and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria,
eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals). c. Examine the evolutionary basis of modern classification systems. d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms. As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system.
The grouping of organisms into KINGDOMS is based on 3 factors:
Cell Type Prokaryote Eukaryote Cell Number Feeding Type Unicellular Multicellular Autotrophic Heterotrophic Has cellular structures No Cellular Structures Bacteria Basic Structure DNA strands floating in cytoplasm/small rings called plasmids
Ribosomes- RNA/protein synthesis sites
Cell membrane & Wall
Cytoplasm is water based Nucleus organized with a membrane other organelles Single celled organism
many celled organism cells start to specialize / differentiate
How the organisms get their food
AKA : Producer Make their own food AKA Consumer Must eat other organisms to survive Includes decomposers those that eat dead matter! Originally only 5 kingdoms Moneran Protista Fungi Plantae
Animalia More animals were discovered. Some of those organisms fit into more than one category. So we split Moneran into 2 categories. Archaebacteria Now we Have 6 Kingdoms Eubacteria
Protista Fungi Animalia Plantae
Rubric determing mastery of Standard SB3 b Prokaryotes Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Ancient bacteria Live in very harsh environments Extremophiles Pressures
pH (both acidic and basic)
Characteristics of Archeabacteria Metabolism: autotrophic chemosynthetic /heterotrophic
Type of cell: prokaryotes Cell number: unicellular Symmetry: Radial Symmetry
Reproduction: Binary fission Complexity: simple Main Groups
Live only in anaerobic conditions primarily in high methane concentrations
Live in very salty concentrated places
Live in extremely acidic environments that have extremely high temperatures.
Methanogens Halophiles Thermacidophiles Scientists are studying the genes of halophiles so that they can find a way to reclaim soil that is ruined by overuse, flooding, and too much irrigation. Over time these soils are too saline/salty to grow crops, but the genes inside halophiles might show scientists how to fix the ruined land by blending the genes of the halophiles with the genes of the crops. That would hopefully make the crops able to grow in soil with above average saline/salt content. Prior to their discovery, scientists believed all life on Earth was dependant upon the sun. The discovery and identification of the Archaebacteria has provided scientists with a look at how life may have evolved on Earth.
They illustrate how life could have begun in an environment with extreme conditions and no oxygen.
Live in more neutral conditions.
This is the bcateria you are most liely to come into contact with. Metabolism: autotrophic photosynthetic / heterotrophic
Major Characteristics (Eubacteria) Type of cell: prokaryotes
Cell number: Unicellular Symmetry: Radial, bilateral Reproduction:
Simple Bacteria come in 3 main shapes Rod or Stick (bacilli) Sphere (cocci)
Helical or spiral (borrelia)
How do they move? Some bacteria have flagella or cilia for movement Some secrete a slime layer and ooze over surfaces like slugs How do they get nutrition? Some bacteria are autotrophs and can photosynthesize Some bacteria are heterotrophs How can we control Bacteria? Heating: Pasteurization & canning
Chemical: Antiseptics: skin Disinfectants: surfaces Vaccines: prevent infection Antibiotics: kill bacteria Change living conditions of bacteria Cooling, freezing: slows growth Dehydrating: remove H20 What happens if we don't control Bacteria?
Control inefficiently? Contains many different types of cells, so often referred to as the odds and ends kingdom. Many widely ranging microbes, including slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae. There are animal-like, fungus-like, and plant-like protists. can get from tap water in some places Lives in water Symptom is extreme diarrhea Ameba histolytica Ambeic Dysentary Giardia Giardaisis
Lives in water Symptoms:
(can feel like flu) don't drink water from streams
African Sleeping Sickness
Comes from Tse tse fly
Symptoms: uncontrolled sleepiness, confusion
Only found in isolated areaslives in blood
Toxoplasma Comes from cats Can cause fetal death or brain damage pregnant women should avoid cat litter
How do protists move? 3 types of movement: Pseudopod (false foot) Flagella/cilia Contractile vacuoles Autotrophy Heterotrophy How do protists eat? By breaking down dead organic material, they continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems.
Unicellular OR Multicellular All Fungi Have cell wall made of chitin Many fungi are edible and others can be used as medication. Stuffed mushrooms Penicillin Athlete's Foot Ring Worm Fungi are stationary. Parts of a mushroom No roots. Hyphae are filaments (strings) of the fungus. Mycelia are mats (tangles) of the hyphae How do fungi eat? All fungi are heterotrophs Saprophytes get their nutrients from dead organic matter Mutualists live symbiotically absorb from a host, eventually killing the host Parasites How do fungi reproduce? Fungi are classified into 4 groups based on their reporduction method. Sexual and Asexual Spores Budding Unknown common bread molds Asexual Spores Zygospore
(Zygosporangia) Reproduce by spores:
some spores are asexual (coming from mitosis)
and some are sex spores (coming from meiosis)
Puffballs Sac Fungi
(Ascomycetes) Reproduce by“budding”
asexual method Imperfect Fungi
Sexual reporduction never observed, although it is known to exist. Penicillin can be extracted from fungi on oranges.
Pharmaceutically important! COMMERCIALLY important!
Fungi accounts for the blue vein in blue cheese!
Used to make soy sauce. Yum!
All Plants are muticellular.
All Plants have Cell wall.
All plants are autotrouphs. 2 Tupes of Plants Vascular Non-Vascular Each Type split into two different kinds No roots, stems, or leaves Tissues designed to carry materials to different areas of the plant. Ferns
(Gymnosperms) Flowering Plants
Mosses (Byrophytes) The simplest of all land dwelling plants. Lack an internal means for water transportation. Do not produce seeds or flowers Fertilization depends on water medium to get the sperm to the egg.
Lack a woody tissue necessary for support around their “stems” and so are usually relatively short. Internal transportation System Xylem: water carrying tubes Phloem: sugar carrying tissues Enables plants to evolve into larger specimens. Produce Seeds: Protects and nourishes an embryo of the new plant
Conifers (pine cones) Oldest vascular plants Flowering plants
All Animals Are... Lack Cell Walls Heterotrophs Are able to move at some point in their life Multicellular There's so many!!! How do we classify them? 2 categories for classification.... 1. Body Symmetry 2. Sketal characteristics What does body symmetry mean? Body Symmetry refers to how many spots correspond to size, shape, and position to other body parts. 3 kinds we refer too.... Assymetrical Radial Bilateral Asymmetrical animals (sponges) have no general body plan or axis of symmetry that divides the body into mirror-image halves. Animals (such as coral and jelly fish) have body parts organized about a central axis and tend to be cylindrical in shape.
Bilateral symmetrical animals (such as humans and fish) have only a single plane of symmetry that produces mirror halves.
Two types of skelatal characteristcs Invertebrates Vertebrates have a hard external skeleton made of chitin known as an exoskeleton have a hard internal skeleton made of bone or cartilage
All organisms are organized in a specific order... Kingdom
Phylum Class Order Subphylum Family Genus Species Anamalia has 8 Phylums Porifera Cnidarians Mollusks
Platyhelminthes Annelids Echinoderms Arthropods Chordates Sponges Asymetrical Jellyfish, corals, and other stingers Stinger is called a nematocyst
A bud is a clone of its parent. Hydras reproduce via budding Radial Symmetry Radial Symmetry Octupus and Squid Bilateral Symmetry Clam and Oysters Snails and Slugs Flat Worms Tapeworms & Liver Fluke Human Liver Fluke Planaria Hermaphrodites Fertilize their own sex cells internally
zygotes are released into water to hatch Capable of Regeneration Being studied to understand stem cells ability to differentiate. Segmented Worms Worms & Leeches Sea Star, Sea Urchins, Sea Cucumbers Shell Fish,
BUGS! The Chordata is the animal phylum with which everyone is most familiar. Subphylum: Vertebrates
(backbone) Bilateral symmetry
Endoskeletons Closed Circulatory Systems Nervous systems with complex brains Efficient respiratory systems