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MMPI - 2
Transcript of MMPI - 2
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Created by S.R. Hathaway & J.C. McKinley
First published in 1943
The MMPI-2 was pubslihed by The University Minnesota Press in 1989, revised in 2001, and updated in 2003 & 2009.
Revised to correct the normative sample, to reword sexist, offensive or outdated items and add new items such as family relationships, eating disorders, and drug abuse.
Most widely used and researched instrument of adult psychopathology, in over 46 countries.
MMPI-A - 1992 :The adolescent form for the test for ages 14 to 18.
MMPI-2 has two forms -
18+ years of age
MMPI-2 537 true/false questions
MMPI-2 RF (Restructured Form) - 338 true/false questions. Takes 35-50 mins and is used for time concerns.
Used to assist in diagnosing mental disorders and types of treatment methods.
Commonly used to asses “psychological stability in works in ‘high-risk’ professions such as airline pilots, police, or workers in the nuclear power industry.” (Drayton, 2009).
It is also useful in forensics and has been used in court testimony.
Assess major symptoms of social and personal maladjustment.
Identify suitable candidates for high-risk public safety positions.
Give a strong empirical foundation for a clinician's expert testimony.
Support college and career counseling recommendations.
Provide valuable insight for marriage and family counseling.
Overall, I would use this test along with taking into consideration the race, socio-economic status, education level, occupation, etc. of the client.
Would use also with other comparable tests.
If it can predict about 60% of a final psychiatric diagnosis, why not use this tool?
Good tool for hiring in certain career fields.
Protected psychological tool given and interpreted by trained psychologist
The scoring system can be complicated and requires intense post-graduate training
Adults 18 yrs
6 th grade reading level
567 True/False questions ranging from physical condition to morale to attitudes of the individual.
5 different report options
Individual & Standardized
60-90 mins long
Little supervision is required
Computer, audio CD, or paper-and-pencil
English, Spanish, Hmong, and French in Canada
3 scoring options:
1. "Q Local" software
2. Mail-in scoring service
3. Hand scoring
After completing the test, the answers are categorized to give scores on the 4 validity scales and the 10 clinical scales.
"T scores" range 30 to 120, with "normal" range 50 to 65. Anything above 65 and below 50 is considered clinicaly significant and open for interpretation by the psychologist.
10 major clinical scales - which assess 10 major categories and deliver information about a client's personality.
There are 9 other clinical scales, 31 subscales to the 10 clinical scales, 15 content scales in the extended score report, 15 content scales, 27 subscales for those 15 content scale, and 30 supplementary scales.
The basic 10 Clinical Scales:
1. Hypochodriasis (Hs) - 32 items
2. Depression (D) - 57 items
3. Hysteria (Hy) - 60 items
4. Psyhopathic Deviate (Pd) - 50 items
5. Masculinity/Femininity (Mf) - 56 items
6. Paranoia (Pa) - 40 items
7. Psychasthenia (Pt) - 48 items
8. Schizophrenia (Sc) - 78 items
9. Hypomania (Ma) - 46 items
0. Social Introversion (Si) - 69 items
Allow the facilitator to measure the client's attitude, emotions and general test-taking attitude. Here are some examples:
K- Correction - 30 items (faking good/bad)
L - Lie - 15 items (faking good)
Fb - 40 items that usually less than 10% of participants support
? Scale - # of unanswered questions, more than 30 = invalid
1,462 women and 1,138 men between 18 - 80 yrs
Represents the U.S. population in age, marital status, ethnicity, ad geography.
Original MMPI was normed on 724 individuals who were friends or relatives of patients in the university hospitals in Minneapolis.
There are no separate culture norms
The revised MMPI-2 manual describes the distributions of age, geographic location, ethnic origin, educational attainment, marital status, occupation, and income level.
Some research has said the scores have been able to predict the final clinical diagnosis in more than 60% of new psychiatric admissions.
The MMPI-2 scores should be analyzed in context of the individual being tested.
Should be administered along with other psychological test.
African American tend to higher on scales F, 8 and 9.
Male Latinos score higher on scale 5
Some questions may seem unusual because the test is designed to assess individuals with a wide range of personality styles and symptoms
Mixed item content within clinical scales
MCMI - Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - III
PAI - Personality Assessment Inventory
BPI - Basic Personality Inventory
Minorities tend to score 5 points higher than whites on the test.
The MMPI has been applied to non-clinical arenas including job screening and personality compatibility.
The test can be used effectively with clients from minority groups if the therapist takes their socioeconomic status, education and other parts into account. These variables have a greater influence than ethnic status on scores.
Manual - $59.25
Softcover test booklets - pk of 10 for $40.85
"Q Local" answer sheets - < $22.50 each,
Pearson scoring answer services - <5 $19.70 each
"Q Local" software: Desktop version - $89/yr, Network version - $250/yr
Butcher, J. N., Graham, J. R., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www1.umn.edu/mmpi/Reprints/Methodological problems in MMPI, MMPI-2, and MMPI-A research.html
Campbell, V. L., & Selby, B. W. (1996). MMPI & MMPI-2 Interpretation Manual for Counselors and Clinicians (Book). Journal Of Personality Assessment, 67(1), 205.
Cochrane, R. E. (2005). A Beginner's Guide to the MMPI-2, Second Edition. Journal Of Psychiatry & Law, 33(2), 267-271.
Downing S.K., Denney R.L., Spray B.L., Houston C.M., & Halfaker D.A. (2008). Examining the relationship between the Reconstructed Scales and the Fake Bad Scale of the MMPI-2. The Clinical
Neuropsychologist, 22, 680-688.
Drayton, M. (2009). The minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 (mmpi-2). Occupational Medicine, (59), 135-136. Retrieved from http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/
Duckworth, J. C. (1991). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2: A Review. Journal Of Counseling & Development, 69(6), 564.
Gregory, R. (2007). Psychological testing: History, principles, and applications. (5th ed., p. 392). Boston: Pearson.
McCreary, C., & Padilla, E. (1977). MMPI differences among black, mexican-american, and
white make offenders. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 33(1), 171-172.
McKinley, J. C, & Hathaway, S. R. (1944). A multiphasic personality schedule (Minnesota): V. Hysteria, Hypomania, and Psychopathic Deviate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 28, 153-174.
Pearson. (n.d.). Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory®-2 (mmpi®-2). Retrieved from http://www.pearsonclinical.com/psychology/products/100000461/minnesota-multiphasic-
Rogers, R., Sewell, K. W., Harrison, K. S., & Jordan, M. J. (2006). The MMPI-2 Restructured
Clinical Scales: A paradigmatic shift in scale development. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 139-147.
Stabile, S. J. (2002). The use of personality tests as a hiring tool: Is the benefit worth the cost?. Retrieved from https://www.law.upenn.edu/journals/jbl/articles/volume4/issue2/
(n.d.). MMPI-2 General Considerations Retrieved from