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Earth's Magnetic Field

Geology 1000 Final Project

Daniel Grisius

on 10 June 2013

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Transcript of Earth's Magnetic Field

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Earth's Magnetic Field Characteristics -Protects us from solar radiation/wind Purpose Induced Remanent - radiates outward from Earth's core, making the magnetic field anomalies detectable. Generation of the Magnetic Field Geomagnetic Dynamo Ionospheric Dynamo Ring Current Magnetopause Current Magnetotail – When basic magnetic dipoles of crustal materials are aligned by Earth's main field such as a compass needle. - Similar to induced only that it is produced in material by a primary field but continues after the primary field vanishes Crustal Magnetization - The process that drives fluid motion conducting material across an existing magnetic field in which creates an electrical current. - It is dipolar, a pair of equal and oppositely charged or magnetized poles separated by a distance (North and South Pole) on Earth's surface - Neighborhood of a magnet, electric current, or changing electric fields - Forces moving electrically charged particles in a circular or helical path. - Exerts electrical currents in wires in a magnetic field such as the operation of an electric motor - At these locations, molten mantle comes to the surface and solidifies to form new oceanic crust, preserving in it the strength and direction of the magnetic field also known as paleomagnetism. Definition - Dipoles located roughly in northern Canada and on the coast of Antarctica - Tilted away from the rotation axis in a geographic meridian passing through the eastern United States. - Responds to the solar wind, growing in strength when appropriate solar wind conditions exist - Most important source because, without the field it creates, the other sources would not exist. - Produced by movement of charged particles of the ionosphere across the Earth's main field. - Motion is driven by the tidal effects of the Sun and the Moon and by solar heating. - An invisible river where currents flow without resistance - An electric current system flowing in the planet’s ionosphere - A flow of a single sheet forms a boundary between the magnetic fields of the Earth and the solar wind. - Affects the surface field and profoundly changes the nature of the Earth’s field in space. - Left behind in a ferromagnetic material (such as iron) after an external magnetic field is removed - Used as a source of information on the past Earth's magnetic field in paleomagnetism. - Extends thousands of miles outward into space. Magnetosphere - part of the of the magnetosphere that streams out several earth radii away from the sun. - Forms a gigantic magnetic "bubble" in space around Earth. Uses Navigation
- use of compasses early as 11th century A.D.
- 1700, first magnetic chart covering the Atlantic Ocean, produced by Halley Directional drilling
- used in the petroleum industry
- gyro tools or magnetic tools Satellite operations
- prediction of magnetic activity Exploration geophysics
- understanding of the underlying geology - Material that is highly sensitive to magnetization such as a mineral deposit can be mirrored to a bar magnet that creates a small dipole field. William Gilbert (1544-1603) "Father of Magnetism" - Emphasized dipolar nature of magnets

-1st to conclude Earth itself acts like a huge magnet

- Noticed Earth's poles are in close proximity (magnet & geographical) Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) - Dipolar component had its origin inside the Earth instead of outside.

- Led scientists to believe the origin of the Earth’s magnetic field in terms of ferromagnetism (gigantic bar magnet), various rotation theories, and various dynamo theories. "Prince of Mathematicians" Geomagnetic Storms - Temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field which interacts with the Earth's magnetic field - Intense solar flares release very high energy particles that can cause radiation poisoning to humans including mammals in the same way as low-energy radiation from nuclear blasts. Summary/Bibliography Ronald , M. (201011). Our Magnetic Earth : The Science of Geomagnetism. University of Chicago Press.

Walker, M., Dennis, T., & Kirschvink, J. (2002). The magnetic sense and its use in long-distance navigation by animals. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12(16), 735–744. Retrieved , from http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.hpu.edu/science/article/pii/S0959438802003896

Saunders, R. (2005). Static magnetic fields: animal studies. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 87(2-3), 225–239. Retrieved , from http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.hpu.edu/science/article/pii/S0079610704001075 The Earth's Magnetic Field. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/earth/magnetic.html
Earth's Magnetic Field. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Magnetosphere/earth_magnetic_field.html
Earthâ??s Dynamo, Chapter 6 - Earthâ??s Magnetic Field. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/earthsmagneticfield/the-truth-about-earth-s-magnetic-field/earth-s-dynamo-chapter-6
Earth?s Magnetic Field. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.universetoday.com/27005/earths-magnetic-field/
Gauss, Karl Friedrich (1777-1855) -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Gauss.html
What causes the Earth's magnetic field?| Explore | physics.org. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=64 Beauty
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