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Lexicology and lexicography

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Kateřina Lichá

on 10 December 2013

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Transcript of Lexicology and lexicography

Center and periphery
is a branch of linguistics, the science of language
is composed of two Greek words:
- meaning word, phrase
- denotes learning, a department of knowledge
the literal meaning of the term lexicology is
the science of the word
lexicology is concerned with words, variable word-groups, phraseological units, and with morphemes which make up words
Language subsystems
we regard language as a system of levels - phonic, lexical and grammatical (pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar)
each of the levels constitutes a system in itself
these subsystems are linked and mutually independent

Lexicology and lexicography
the description of the lexical system or lexical components of a language includes lexicology and lexicography
- deals with the meaning and use of words and their mutual relations
- is the practise and theory of compiling dictionaries
Lexicology and lexicography
Two approaches to language study
there are two principal approaches in linguistic science to the study of language material:
the synchronic approach
- is concerned with the vocabulary of a language that as it exists at a given time (for instance, at the present time)
the diachronic approach
- deals with the changes and the development of vocabulary in the course of time
vocabulary = lexis, lexicon
is all the lexical items (words and multi-word expressions) that are used in particular language
the items of vocabulary are organized in a special way (formally or semantically)
vocabulary is the least stable system and has a relatively unlimited number of items in it

here are two principal methods for describing words
one method is by writing a dictionary and the other is by writing a thesaurus
- words are arranged where you can find them (in alphabetical order)
- words that are similar in meaning are grouped together, for example, all the words that are species of fish
- is the base form under which the word is entered and assigned its place; typically the stem or simplest form (singular noun, present/infinitive verb)
Vocabulary as a system

there is a certain lack of balance in the system
the system is in the state of unstable equilibrium with elements in
the periphery
and in
the center
competing each other
there are two opposing forces in the system:
efforts to bring words from periphery to the center
efforts to produce finer distinctions in meaning
the center
- is occupied by lexical units with greatest stability and frequency; in the center prevail notional words (with full lexical meaning) and words with a precisely defined meaning
the periphery
- contains words that are limited in frequency
The extralinguistic reality
is processed in its essential features by human consciousness as a concept (pojem)
the essential features are needed for an effective communication between the users of a particular language
the extralinguistic reality includes real objects, ideas, actions and imaginary reality
between the word and the item of extralinguistic reality (between the form and its content) there is no relationship
words do not name the objects, they only refer to them
the referent of the word
is the object
Word and lexeme

- is a combination of sounds, or its representation in writing, that symbolizes and communicates a meaning
in the early stages of alphabetic writing, letters followed each other in lines without spaces to separate off
spaces between groups of letters became important as the convention of writing evolved
- may be regarded as a sign, an abstract unit, a class of variants
also called lexical item, lexical unit, can means two things:
the word realized by several morphological words (it means that hand and hands are two morphological words, but they are two forms of the same lexical item, which most linguists call a lexeme)
the composite in structure (throw out, stamp collector)

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