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Life in New France
Transcript of Life in New France
Life in New France
New France was first discovered in 1534 by Jacques Cartier when he was exploring the Saint Lawrence River. New France is a colony of France in North America. It was mainly located in what is now Ontario and Quebec. But it also went down farther south, to what is now the United States.
Food that was not grown in New France was very expensive which meant that only the rich could get it. most of the food had to be grown, fished or hunted. Some of the things they hunted were ducks, geese, partridge, passenger pigeons, deer, moose and bear. They would also fish for eel, pickerel, carp, smelt, sturgeon, herring, cod, salmon and trout. Foods other than meat were grown and gathered. Each person ate about two loaves of bread per day. Their dairy would come from their cows and their protein would come from what they hunted. Their main meal was usually eaten in the evening and had their lunch and afternoon snack in the fields.
The women would wear shirts and skirts made of linen and the men would wear knee breeches (pants tied at the knee) and jerkins (jackets). Brimmed hats were also very common.
Houses were usually built near rivers and streams for access of fresh water. They also were built near forests for easy access to wood. They were built out of wood logs and the logs were stuck together by using sand, lime and water. Glass windows were expensive, so they would use stretched animal skin or waxed paper. Windows were usually very small. Roofs were very sloped and usually made out of wood and wood shingles. There houses would look much like log cabins.
For transportation in the winter they would usually use snowshoes which were created by the aboriginals. Sometimes messengers would even skate along rivers and across ponds and lakes to deliver mail and massages. All year round they would use ships for traveling across the Atlantic ocean. They would have canoes for traveling down the river and horse drawn carriages for going around.
Some tools used by farmers are:
Interaction With The Native Peoples
The newcomers to north America could not have survived without the native peoples. Despite that they still tried to change their way by converting them to Christianity and wiping out the native ways. But the french spent more time establishing their new colony than paying attention to the native people. The french governor also held meetings with the first nations which suggested that the governor was prepared to except the differences of the native people.
Reasons for coming to New France
The most common reasons people would come to New France is to build a new farm. Land in New France was alot cheaper than in France and there was alot more of it. You could also could be more free with religion. Some would go to trade with the natives.
The Governor was the top official in new France and he was responsible for hearing out the king. He would also read all new laws and read the tax rates. The most famous Governor Louis de Buade, Count Frontenac. He was the Governor from 1672 to 1682 and 1689 to 1698. He was a French noble and had been an officer in the armies of France and Venice. He was told by the king to go to new France with orders to keep the settled areas to few places close to trade routes. The intendant was responsible for fiance and justice seeing that the rules laws of the council were obeyed. The Governor was usually of noble blood but the intendant was usually a commoner. He made sure that taxes were paid and criminals were punished. Jean Talon was the intendant of the northern territorys of new France what is now Nova Scotia New Brunswick PEI.
The main role of the men was to supply food for his family. He would take care of the farm which was the most important but the men would also hunt animals.
Women had alot of work too. They would have to do all the cooking, cleaning and take care of all the children. Sometimes women would have up to 15 children. They would also make all their children's clothes.
Small children would bring in fire wood but not much else. When the girls were old enough they would help their mother with the cooking, cleaning and making clothes and the boys would help their father. Once the boys were 11 or 12 they would do the work of a man.
One of the problems the First Nations had with the newcomers was diseases. The French would bring diseases like smallpox, cholera, typhus and influenza. They would also have problems to see who gets what land and how much money it would be. There would be troubles with making making new laws and finding people to enforce those laws. Something that would be very, very hard to solve was the issue with the First Nations. They would have to find a happy medium between two. Without having any unfairness or there could be war.
The Roman Catholic Church was the only main religion until the 1500's when Martin Luther, John Knox and John Calvin set up churches called protestants because they protested the ways of the Roman Catholic ways. They were persecuted and banned from any of Frances colonies.
The Roman Catholic French also disagreed with the spiritual ways of the First Nations. This created wars between the First Nations and the colonizers. They would target certain places like French religious centers. They set up residential schools and would come and take First Nation children away from their families and homes. They were taken to learn the european ways of religion and everyday life.