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Ocean Landforms

Description of the (8) different ocean landforms

LaShawn Hawkins

on 19 September 2012

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Transcript of Ocean Landforms

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Can you name them ? Ocean Landforms Guyots are isolated underwater volcanic mountains with a flat top over 200 meters below the surface of the sea. The guyot was named after the Swiss-American geographer and geologist Arnold Henry Guyot, but sadly he died in 1884. Eventually, Harry Hammond Hess coined Arnold's idea.

Did you Know? .......
Guyots are mostly found in the Pacific Ocean.
Their flatness is due to erosion by waves, winds and atmospheric processes.
The steepest guyots are mostly 20 degrees.
Guyots can also be called tablemounts. GUYOTS A volcano erupts above sea level somewhere in the ocean Head Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Guyots are seamounts that have built above sea level. Erosion by waves destroyed the top of seamount resulting in a flattened shape. Due to the movement of the ocean floor away from oceanic ridges, the sea floor gradually sinks and the flattened guyots are submerged to become undersea flat-topped peaks. We know that the tops of guyots were one at the surface because they contain evidence of fossils such as coral reefs that only live in shallow water. After a long time, waves have eroded the portion above sea level.

Gradually, the sea floor subsides as it moves away from the oceanic ridge, and the guyot becomes submerged. A Seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level). These are typically formed from extinct volcanoes, that rise and usally found rising from the seafloor. Seamounts come in all shapes and sizes, and follow a distinctive pattern of growth, activity and death.

Did You Know . . .
Seamounts are also isolated underwater mountains.
That can be hundreds of kilometers high.
There are about 100,000 seamounts around the world, with few being studied.
Several active seamounts have been observed, for example some are found in the Hawaiian Islands. SEAMOUNT A seamount never reaches the surface so it maintains a "volcanic" shape. The deepest parts of the ocean are trenches. Some people might say that trenches kind of look like waterfalls. Trenches have no sun light and very cold and experience extreme pressure.
Did You Know. . .
Trenches can be 8,000 - 10,000 meters deep.
One is more than 11,000 meters deep.
Trenches have very little life. So, that means there is not a lot of animals that live near trenches.
Trenches are generally deeper
And, they are wide and narrow. TRENCH An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between 3,000 and 6,000 meters. Lying generally between the foot of a continental rise and mid-ocean ridge, abyssal plain covers more than 50% of the Earth's surface. Abyssal plain are among the flattest, smoothest and least explored regions on Earth.
Did You Know. . .
Abyssal Plain were not recognized until the late 1940's. ABYSSAL PLAIN The Mid-Ocean Ridge is a general term for an underwater mountain system that consists of various mountain ranges, typically having a valley known as a rift running along its spine, formed by plate tectonics. The type of oceanic ridge is characteristic of what is known as an oceanic spreading center, which is responsible for seafloor spreading. The uplifted seafloor results from convection currents which rise in the mantle as magma at a linear weakness in the oceanic crust, and emerge as lava, creating new crust upon cooling.

Did You Know . . .
You can also call a Mid-Ocean Ridge a Canyon or a Ridge. MID-OCEAN RIDGE The Continental Shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain. The Continental Shelf is covered with thick layers of sediments (sand, mud and rocks). The Continental Shelf also has the shallowest water. Above is an example of the Continental Shelf.
Did You Know . . .
The Continental Shelf is like when you are at a beach, the water is shallow at first then it has a big drop and that's called a Continental Shelf. CONTINENTAL SHELF A continental slope goes down the continental shelf to the continental rise. Continental slope is made with thick layers of sediments (sand, mud,and rocks.) A continental slope is also a steep slope separating a continental shelf and a deep ocean basin. Above is an example of the Continental Slope.
Did You Know . . .
A continental slope is when you are at the beach and the water is shallow at first and then it hits the continental shelf, then it hits the continental slope and them it is like a long straight rollercoaster. There is a picture above that shows you what it kind of looks like. CONTINENTAL SLOPE CONTINENTAL SLOPE A continental rise is a wide, gentle incline to an ocean bottom from the continental slope. Although it usually has a smooth surface, it is sometimes crosscut by submarine canyons. A continental rise mostly has muds, sands, and rocks. The continental slope curves down to the continental rise to the ocean floor. There is a picture above to give you an idea of what it looks like. CONTINENTAL RISE An island is land that is surrounded around water. Some islands are located in Hawaii, Bahamas, Mediterranean, and the Caribbean. Islands are very pretty.
Did You Know . . .
Hawaii was the last state to join the union on August 21, 1959? A lot of people visit islands, because islands are a great adventure. If you look on a map you can kind of see the islands. ISLANDS In summary you have seen several different ocean landforms with distinct characteristics. Let's test your knowledge! How many can you name?
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