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Copy of Nigerian Civil War 67-70
Transcript of Copy of Nigerian Civil War 67-70
-The Nigerian government launched a "police action" to
retake the secessionist territory.The war began on
July 6, 1967 when Nigerian Federal troops advanced
into Biafra. Short Term Causes
- Military coup occured after claims of electoral fraud on January 15, 1966. It was led by Igbo junior Army officers. This coup resulted in General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, an Igbo and head of the Nigerian Army, taking power as President, becoming the first military head of state in Nigeria. The coup itself failed, as Ironsi rallied the military against the plotters. Tactics Used
Fight centers around the Federal capital of Lagos
Both sides attempted to maintain control of city Destroy Industrial Centers
Destroy defense industry
Inflict collateral damage
Start from the inside of Nigeria and push forces back Biafran Tactics Force a two front war to flank Biafran Forces
Overpower using Navy against Biafran lack of
eliminate strongholds one by one
cut of trade and communication between Biafran and outside world Nigerian Military Tactics British Colonial Rule
- The British split the nation into three
parts with no regaurd for the people
who lived there. This caused political,
religious,and ideological issues. Political
-The country was divided in such a way that the North had slightly more population than the other two regions combined. On this basis the Northern Region was allocated a majority of the seats in the Federal Legislature established by the colonial authorities.
- The division of the country paid no mind to the religious groups and therefore put apposing groups into the same sections. Effects and Results of War Ideological The British political ideology of dividing Nigeria during the colonial period into three regions North, West and East exacerbated the already well-developed economic, political, and social competition among Nigeria’s different ethnic groups.
More than 1 million people died
international distrust (political and economic instability)
Refugees returned to devastated villages Economic Major industrial centers destroyed
Defense industry destroyed
Major cash crops/source of economy were destroyed
Local food production plummeted
Nigerian economy devastated Home Front Nigerian Propaganda-Biafran cruelty support the Nigerian army effort
Biafran accumulated large support against government rule Resistance/Revolutionary Movements The original military coup is the center of the entire war
Biafran forces sought to overthrow current Nigerian Government by taking Federal Capital of Lagos Territorial Changes
Nigeria was divided into three regions.
The Northern part of the country had the largest area.
This division led to even more ethnic based political parties.
The Nigerian government was left in shambles.
Most Igbos with government jobs fled from Nigerian, upon returning their jobs were not returned.
The Nigerian Federal Forces won the war.
"Justice must at all times be tempered with mercy." - President Obasanjo
Laws were passed stating that political parties could not be ethnically or tribally based. (This law has proved to be almost impossible to enforce.)
Post War Economic Challenges
In 1967 both the Income per Capita and the GDP were exceptionally low.
The income distribution over Nigeria was very uneven.