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Top Ten Educational Issues of the 21st Century
Transcript of Top Ten Educational Issues of the 21st Century
7. Addressing cultural diversity, multiple intelligences, promoting creativity and fair assessments to determine student achievement.
1. Quality of Educators teaching in public schools
10. Providing access to technology for all students.
Quality teachers set high expectations for all students.
Quality teachers have formal teacher preparation training;
hold certification of some kind (standard, alternative, or provisional) and are certified within their fields adn have taught for at least three years.
Quality teachers are masters of their subject matter.
They exhibit expertise in the subjects they are teaching and spend time continuing to gain new knowledge in their field. They present material in an enthusiastic manner and instill a hunger in their students to learn more on their own.
Quality teachers have clear, written-o
ut objectives. Effective teachers have lesson plans that give students a clear idea of what they will be learning, what the assignments are and what the grading policy is.
Quality teachers are prepared and organized.
They present lessons in a clear and structured way. Their classrooms are organized in such a way as to minimize distractions and maximize instructional time via effective classroom management. They dedicate extra time to instructional preparation and reflection.
Quality teachers engage students and get them to look at issues in a variety of ways.
Enhance instruction by varying instructional strategies, activities, and assignments. Present content to students in a meaningful way that fosters understanding.
Quality teachers form strong relationships with their students;they are fair respectful, and show that they care about them as people.
Quality teachers monitor students' learning by
utilizing pre- and post assessments, providing timely and informative feedback, and reteaching material to students who did not achieve mastery..
Quality teachers communicate frequently with parents.
Quality teachers demonstrate effectiveness with the full range of student abilities in their classrooms, regardless of the academic diversity of the students. (Tucker & Stronge, 2005)
History of Educating Teachers in America
Outcomes and Conclusion
"The transformative power of an effective teacher is something almost all of us have experienced and understand on a personal level. If we were particularly fortunate, we had numerous exceptional teachers who made school an exciting and interesting place. Those teachers possessed a passion for the subjects that they taught and genuine care for the students with whom they worked. They inspired us to play with ideas, think deeply about the subject matter, take on more challenging work, and even pursue careers in a particular field of study" ( Tucker & Stronge, 2005) . It becomes quite clear that the benefits to the students outweigh the possible costs. Teachers must be willing to grow and those who cannot should not be allowed to teach.
8. Integration of Curriculum that promotes higher order thinking, college and career readiness, i.e. the Common Core State Standards.
9. Funding for schools, including supplies and teacher salaries.
1772 to Late 18th Century
"Wanted Immediately: A Sober diligent Schoolmaster capable of teaching READING, WRITING, ARITHMETICK, and the Latin TONGUE... Any Person qualified as above, and well recommended, will be put into immediate Possession of the School, on applying to the Minister of Charles Parish, York County." -- The Virginia Gazette, August 20, 1772
"From colonial times and into the early decades of the 19th century, most teachers were men. There were, of course, career schoolmasters, but, especially in smaller and rural schools, the people who stood in front of the classroom might well be farmers, surveyors, even innkeepers, who kept school for a few months a year in their off-season. The more educated and ambitious schoolmasters were young men who made the schoolroom a stepping-stone on their way to careers in the church or the law. The connections they made with local ministers and school committees in securing teaching jobs often helped them when they moved on to their real professions" (PBS Online, n.d.).
1820s - 1830s
The Common School Era
"The grammar school teachers have rarely had any education beyond what they have acquired in the very schools where they have to teach. Their attainments, therefore, to say the least, are usually very moderate." -- James Carter, Education Reformer, 1826
"Mann and his fellow reformers like James Carter, Henry Barnard and Catharine Beecher saw that the schools needed not only more teachers, but better teachers. Many of the most promising young men continued to be siphoned off by more prestigious professions, as well as by new industries and the lure of the western frontier. So where would the army of new teachers come from? There was, of course, another ready source of labor, if reformers could convince the public to accept it. Women were poised to take over the schoolroom. (PBS online, n.d.)
The Common School
"The new schools would be funded by taxes and special fees paid by parents.
The advent of the Common School significantly affected teachers and the teaching profession. The increasing number of new schools across the country demanded greater numbers of educated teachers. In order to staff the schools, communities turned to women, spurring the feminization of the teaching profession -- the entry and eventual domination of women in the workforce. It also led to the formalization of teacher training, often through Normal Schools" (PBS Online, n.d.).
The risks for schools who do not enforce the quality of their teachers will see the effects in their students:
Students starting at the same level of achievement can know vastly different amounts at the end of a single academic year due solely to the teacher to which they are assigned.Students who have two bad teachers in a row will never recover.
Schools that need good teachers the most, such as schools in disadvantaged areas, often have the worst teachers.
Students who struggle in public school also struggle in college or never manage to get into college. This reinforces the cycle of poverty.
Ineffectively teaching students, can prevent them from earning the grades needed to pass a class. This leads to some students dropping out of high school.
Unqualified teachers pass students too easily, causing the students to graduate with high school diplomas but inadequate skills.
Unqualified teachers often do not construct detailed lesson plans. These poorly designed lesson plans make it more difficult for evaluators to assess teachers efficiently and also prevent the school from fully understanding what the teachers will do in the classroom. (Pearson, 2014).
Study after study shows the single most important factor determining the quality of the education a child receives is the quality of his teacher.
Having quality educators has no drawbacks on the students who are taught by all means it is the opposite. The drawbacks come from the cost to educate teachers, the time that is required for additional training, and the ability of administrators to properly evaluate teacher quality.
5. Student health and nutrition in & out of school
6. Ratio of students teachers - classroom size
3. Poverty and issues relating to socio-ecomomic status or SES
4. Need for an increase in parent and community involvement
2. Combating Violence in schools
"City Boards of Education, increasingly made up of business and professional men, worked to reform teaching. Often their goals were laudable: to root out corruption, to raise the practice and status of teaching, to ensure real student achievement. But they rarely had any first-hand knowledge of what teaching actually was like.
The "administrative progressives" (as education historian David Tyack has called them) wanted to impose uniformity and efficiency on classrooms of 50 disparate children. They supported the move away from Normal Schools to university departments of education, where theory would rule. They discouraged individual initiative by teachers, whom they considered too limited to enact worthwhile change" (PBS Online, n.d.).
"Normal Schools were originally established to provide systematic training of teachers. Their goal was to prepare teachers for work in the emerging Common Schools at a level beyond the simple grammar-school education many teachers previously brought to the classroom. Normal Schools prided themselves on their thorough, cohesive and "scientific" curriculum. They would provide a norm for all teachers (hence the term Normal School) that would assure a level of quality generally unavailable previously.
The impact of Normal Schools on the concept of teacher training was enormous, as states recognized the need to provide teachers with stimulating and demanding preparation courses" (PBS Online, n.d.)
"God seems to have made woman peculiarly suited to guide and develop the infant mind, and it seems...very poor policy to pay a man 20 or 22 dollars a month, for teaching children the ABCs, when a female could do the work more successfully at one third of the price." -- Littleton School Committee, Littleton, Massachusetts, 1849
"The reformers argued that women were by nature nurturing and maternal, as well as of high moral character."The school committee are sentinels stationed at the door of every school house in the State, to see that no teacher crosses its threshold, who is not clothed, from the crown of his head to the sole of his foot, in garments of virtue." Horace Mann Teachers were moral exemplars, the models and instructors of upright living.
Yet women were becoming better educated than ever before, and state officials took notice. In this period, most states began to put in place requirements for teachers: basic academic competence and attendance at summer institutes for ongoing training. Many (beginning with Massachusetts in 1838) had inaugurated Normal Schools, institutions devoted to teacher education" (PBS Online, n.d.)
Low SES students who are taught by higher quality teachers are better educated and have a greater chance to achieve higher educational goals which in turn leads to higher paying jobs, allowing them to break the cycle of poverty.
Just as The negative effects of teaching can ruin several generations in a given area and create a poverty trap. (Pearson, 2014)
Students who are taught by quality teachers will be more successful in their post-high school education.
In a study done by the National Bureau of Economic research, the number of students who are taught by higher quality teachers have a 36% greater chance of attending college.
(Chetty & Friedman, 2011)
Students who have quality teachers will in turn hold higher positions within their perspective careers and make more money.
According to study conducted by Rockoff, students who have teachers of 1 standard deviation of value-added-VA (quality teaching level) higher beginning at age 12 will see an overall .9% higher lifetime earning rate than those taught by a teacher at 1 VA lower. This translates to approximately %522,000 or $4600 per grade. (Rockoff, 2012)
1840s: Feminization Begins
Unions and Progressivism
There are two national teachers unions in the United States today, the National Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers. The NEA was founded in 1857 as a policy-making organization, one that hoped to influence the national debate about schools and schooling. Over the next hundred years, it played a significant role in standardizing teacher training and curriculum.
Progressive Education, argued that democracy must prevail in the classroom. Both teachers and children needed to be free, he argued, to devise the best forms of learning for each child. These assumptions turned the hierarchy of classrooms and schools upside down. While the implementation of progressive education has been uneven over the past 100 years, its influence on teachers' roles within schools has been notable.
1960s to 1980s: Teachers, Social Equality and Professionalism
"We need to move now to a professional approach, which holds people accountable for doing what's good for kids, for teaching and learning. That requires change both on the part of the unions and on the part of school boards, administrators and parents and community participants in the process as well." -- Linda Darling-Hammond, Professor of Education
"The 1983 report "A Nation at Risk" depicted teachers who were both underqualified and underpaid, working in poor conditions, achieving poor results. A follow-up report in 1986, "A Nation Prepared," laid the foundations for a new professionalism and a new Standards movement. It proposed improving teacher education, restructuring the teaching force and giving teachers greater say in how they met new requirements for student achievement. The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards was born the next year to provide a clearing-house for national recognition and certification of exemplary teachers" (PBS Online, n.d.)
"The call for uniform, high standards in teaching and learning has echoed throughout American history. Catharine Beecher and Horace Mann despaired of the low standards for teachers in the mid-19th century; 50 or 60 years later Progressive educators like John Dewey complained about ineffective teaching methods; all Americans worried about the state of our children's learning in the 1950s in the wake of the Russian rocket Sputnik, and in the 1980s we were convinced we were a "Nation At Risk" because of our low educational standards. With each outcry has come a new determination to define and implement better standards for our schools.
The 21st-century Standards Movement has taken several different forms, primarily relating to curriculum, teacher training and performance, and student achievement" (PBS Online, n.d.)
History Overview to Present
What method can be used to fairly assess the quality of educators? Should it be based on
overall student successes on standardized tests?
the ability to reach individual students and their individual achievement?
Some teachers might have a reputation for quality teaching because their classes frequently have high standardized test scores, but the teacher only produces successful test takers by teaching the test.
Who pays for the cost of Professional Development and additional training to keep teachers current?
How can administrators find the time to be in every classroom often enough to truly assess a teacher?
How do schools remove teachers who are ineffective and have tenure without repercussions?
Unions have traditionally defended ineffective teachers.
6. Recognizing that qualified doesn't necessarily mean quality or effective. (Pearson, 2014)
Qualities of Effective Teachers
Teachers who continue their education through professional development or additional courses, will stay abreast of the changes in education and will be able to provide students with a better quality education.
Teachers who are quality teachers can help to educate students in a way that can help to break the cycle of poverty.
Quality, well trained educators provide ways that take the students from basic skills to higher order thinking in turn, better preparing them for college and career.
Quality, well trained educators reach students of multiple intelligences, and learning abilities.
Quality teachers provide opportunities for students to collaborate and problem solve developing skills the students will need for life.
(Emory Finance, n.d.)
(Teaching Quotes, n.d.)
(A Quality Teacher, 2009)