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Transcript of Beyond Motivation:
CMC and Language
What theory says:
Teachers' beliefs about the role of technology are the most essential factors to determine the content and scope of their use of technology in their classrooms (Becker,1991; Campoy, 1992; Ertmer, Addison, Lane, Ross, & Woods, 1991; Petersen & Liu, 2003).
A need for studying teachers and their purposes for using computers (Miller and Olson, 1994).
Traditional teacher- centered teaching practices do not lead to a successful use of computers. (Miller and Olson, 1994) and (Wang, 2002).
Successful use of computer technology requires an instructional change to constructivist teaching (Strommen & Lincoln, 1992; Jonassen, Peck, & Wilson, 1999) as well as student-centered instruction (Pedersen & Liu, 2003; Sandholtz, Ringstaff, & Dwyer, 1997).
ESL/EFL Teachers' Perceptions of the Role of Computers
Hoe Kyeung Kim
Encourage students participation and communication (Kern, 1995; Warschauer,1997).
Reduce the sense of fear or intimidation (Kelm, 1992; Kronnenberg, 1994).
Allow more time for reflection (Abrams, 2001; Duffy, Dueber, & Hawley, 1996).
Expected to facilitate and support peer work, group work, and task-based activities (Kern, 1996; Warschauer, 1995).
The purpose of this study was to explore ESL/EFL teachers' perceptions of the role of computer technology in their classrooms.
Three research questions were developed:
1. How do the ESL/EFL teachers perceive the role of computer technology in their classroom?
2. In what ways do they believe that CALL can contribute to language learning?
3. How do they expect to integrate CALL in their language classrooms?
Purpose of Hoe Kyeung study
Teachers do not recognize the importance on computers in the classroom.
The Role of the Computer in Classrooms
In early applications of CALL...
Used as a device/teaching machine for drill-and-practice purposes.
Evolved into student-oriented applications offering diverse formats of feedback on students' performance.
The introduction of the internet and multimedia supplied ESL/EFL teachers and students with virtual unbounded uses.
Provided students with learning tools to experience authentic learning materials, abundant resources and interactive experiences in L2.
Vague knowledge of computer-assisted collaborative learning in language learning.
An underlying need to stress cognitive advantages in collaborative learning that vary from the motivational aspect of cooperative activities (Crook, 1994).
Limitations of providing feedback, lack of nonverbal cues and language learners' limited language seems to reduce the importance of using computers in language teaching.
CMC and CALL can increase the quality of students' communication and their own learning motivation.
Technologically experienced teachers are more inclined on student learning and empowerment than teacher instruction and student management.
The use of computers in a student-centered and constructivist learning approach can transform teacher centered pedagogical practices ( Miller and Olson, 1994; Cuban, 2001)
Use of computers, Student-centered Teaching, and Constructivist Approaches
CALL in the ESL/EFL classrooms would promote student interaction in the target language plus to create learning environments to explore information/resources and co construct self-knowledge and with peers.
10 ESL/EFL Teachers Interviews were conducted.
Purpose: To detect Teacher' perceptions of CALL.
Based on an analytical model
Each interview lasted about 50 minutes and questions were semistructured. The interview was mainly framed in four aspects: Perceptions of CALL, language learning, pedagogy and expectation on the use of computers in the classroom. Data was audiotaped and trancribed.
Constant Comparative Approach was implemented. Seven codes were firstly taken: computers for resources, tutors, communication, presentation, writing, motivators, and optional tools and then categorized into three main ones: computers as tools, motivators, and optional tools.
Teachers used computers under pressure.
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
Computers perceived as a tool
An alternative and optional tool for resource, tutoring, communication, presentation, and writing.
Preconditioned its usage under the need of equipped classrooms with up-to-date hardware, appropriate software, and available technical assistance.
A teacher-centered use of computers was confirmed.
Computers perceived as a motivator
To engage students in their learning.
Half the teachers associated with authentic materials, authentic interaction with native speakers and collaborative activities.
Eight teachers believed using computers motivate students to participate in their learning by providing a variety of activities and different mediums.
Computer perceived as optional tool
A supplemental tool in language classrooms and a matter of worthiness; whose meaning seemed to be arbitrary and situational (there were no clear criteria to determine the notion of worthiness).
Disbelief that computers could develop all four language skills equally.
Content controlled by using their own homepages as course materials not allowing students to explore the internet freely.
Teachers' beliefs about CALL contributions to language learning
Support student-centered teaching and increase student motivation.
Allow students choose their own learning materials according to their interests. (students would have more control over learning materials and learning processes to become independent learners).
THE ESL/EFL TEACHERS' USE OF CALL
LIMITED AND OPTIONAL
Certain language skills
Worthiness of computer use
The flexibility of the curriculum
Needs of students
TEACHING IMPLICATIONS TO INTEGRATE CALL IN LANGUAGE CLASSROOMS
To receive professional guidance in using computers in a constructivist learning paradigm that focuses on student's cognitive development and empowers students in their learning process instead of directing student learning in CALL.
Play a flexible role to expand their use of computers.
Redefine the notion of student-centered teaching and its educational value.
The participants' teaching backgrounds and experience were not homogeneous due to the nature of enrollment in TESOL program.
Teachers' previous teaching experiences and context influenced their expectations and perceptions of computers.
ESL and EFL Teachers' belief may differ according to contextual differences between their classrooms such as curriculum and institutional settings.
SPECIALIST GROUP 3 MEMBERS
SIDELEINE BARROS GONZÁLEZ
HUMBERTO LECHUGA GÓMEZ
CÉSAR ROMERO LÓPEZ
FABIOLA UTRIA NAVARRO
JORGE YEPEZ ROBLES