Transcript of Pavlov/Skinner Graphic Organizer
Learning Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning A type of learning that occurs when individuals learn to produce involuntary emotional or physiological responses similar to instinctive or reflexive responses Behaviorism A theory that explains learning in terms of observable behaviors and how they're influenced by stimuli from the environment B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning A form of learning in which an observable response changes in frequency or duration as a result of a consequence Unconditioned Stimulus An object or event that causes an instinctive or reflexive (unlearned) physiological or emotional response. Unconditioned Response The instinctive or reflexive (unlearned) physiological or emotional response caused by the unconditioned stimulus. Neutral Stimulus An object or event that doesn't initially impact behavior one way or the other. Conditioned Stimulus A formerly neutral stimulus that becomes associated with the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Response A learned physiological or emotional response that is similar to the unconditioned response http://explorable.com/images/classical-conditioning.jpg Consequences Events (Stimuli) that occur following a behavior and that influence the probability of the behaviors recurring Reinforcement The process of applying reinforcers to increase behavior Reinforcer: A consequence that increases the likelihood of a behavior reccuring. Positive Reinforcement The process of increasing the frequency or duration of a behavior as a result of presenting a reinforcer. Premack Principle: States that a more-desired activity can serve as a positive reinforcer of a less-desired activity. Negative Reinforcement The process of increasing behavior by avoiding or removing an aversive stimulus. Shaping The process of reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior. (Pushing the recipient to do better) Reinforcement Schedules Different patterns in the frequency and predictability of reinforcers that have different effects on behavior. Satiation The process of using a reinforcer so frequently that it loses its potency. Ineffective punishment also loses potency Continuous RS A reinforcement schedule where every desired behavior is reinforced Intermittent RS A reinforcement schedule where some, but not all behaviors are reinforced. Ratio Schedule An intermittent reinforcement schedule where specific behaviors are reinforced, either predictably(fixed) or unpredictably(variable) Interval Schedule An intermittent reinforcement schedule in which behaviors are reinforced after a certain predictable interval (fixed) or unpredictable interval of time has passed (variable). http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/Skinner_files/page23_2.gif Extinction The disappearance of a behavior as a result of nonreinforcement. Punishment The Process of using Punishers to decrease behavior Punishers: Consequences that weaken behaviors or decrease the likelihood of the behaviors' recurring. Presentation Punishment A decrease in behavior that occurs when a stimulus (punisher) is presented. Removal Punishment A decrease in behavior that occurs when a stimulus is removed, or when an individual cannot receive positive reinforcement. i.e. Taking a favorite toy. Ineffective Punishment Physical punishmentFull transcript
Embarrassment and humiliation
Classwork Effective Punishment Desists: Verbal and nonverbal communications that teachers use to stop behaviors
Timeout: The process of isolating a student from its classmates (also Detention)
Response Cost: The Process of removing reinforcers already given The effectiveness of punishments at all has been fiercely debated among psychologists. Positive Negative Antecedents Stimuli that precede and induce behaviors Environmental Conditions Antecedents that are part of the environment around us. Such as a dark room. Prompts and Cues Specific stimuli intended to produce a desirable behavior, particularly in learning activities. Past Reinforcers Serve as antecedents for response to similar, but not identical stimuli Generalization The process of giving the same response to similar, but not identical stimuli. Discrimination The process of giving different responses to slightly different stimuli. http://www.behaviorbabe.com/photos/undefined/reinforcement%20and%20punishment.png http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/graphics/abc.gif http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_m8t7hwdIk31rdqdijo1_500.jpg Intentionally Misquoted http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Wx5nq5iS8g0/TlVDohxVk1I/AAAAAAAAAAY/sbmZX7fc0Kk/s1600/BF+SKINNER.jpg All information is taken directly from "Educational Psychology", by Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak (2010).