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Ion Exchange chromatography

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Simona Gh

on 27 June 2014

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Transcript of Ion Exchange chromatography

Ion Exchange chromatography

Caffeine
Importance
Principles
Applications in food industry
Beverages
Dairy products
Fruit juices
Recovery of polyphenols
Citric acid
Aminoacids
Sorbitol demineralisation
Gelatine demineralisation

Nitrates and nitrites
Caffeine:
Increases metabolic rate
Stimulates the cardiac muscle

Excessive intake leads to:
Tremor, Tachycardia
Gastro-intestinal difficulties
Convulsions, seizures
Death

The amount of caffeine in soft drinks varies among brands and it is closely regulated by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) to no more than 200 µg/mL.


Determination of caffeine in beverages
Beer industry – Compounds of interest
Carbohydrates
Alcohols
Organic acids
Inorganic anions
Inorganic cations

Carbohydrates
Beer during production
Final product
The carbohydrates of most importance to the brewing industry are the fermentable sugars. These are the sugars that are converted by yeast to alcohol.
Alcohols
Organic acids
The two main alcohols that are present in high concentrations in beer are Glycerol and Ethanol.
Lactate is formed by Lactic acid bacteria that converts glucose and other sugars to lactic acid.
Organic acids in red and white wines
Winemakers require the concentrations of the various organic acids to be monitored to ensure consistent quality.

The levels of malic acid in particular as wines undergo a malolactic bacterial fermentation process that converts malic acid to lactic acid reducing acidity of the wine.

Acetic acid levels is another key organic acid level that needs to be determined as it is the main product of oxidation and can spoil a wine.

Inorganic anions and cations
Inorganic anions are introduced into the beer from the brewing water. The quantity and the variety of the different salts and minerals in water affect the characteristics of beer such as head formation and the flavour.

Some of these inorganic cations affect the pH of the mash while others affect the taste and flavour of the beer.

Other metals: Lead, copper and zinc.
Tequila
Mexican legislation requires copper content in tequila to be lower than 2.00 mg/L .
Previous methods of removing copper ions from alcoholic beverages include the addition of chelating agents or MgCO3 or CaCO3.
The tequila matrix has 175 organic constituents at trace levels and any disruption of this would cause detrimental affects on the taste.
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References
Qing-chuan Chen, Shi-fen Mou, Xiao-ping Hou, Zhe-ming Ni (1998).Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in foods and pharmaceutical preparations by using ion chromatography. Analytica Chimica Acta 371 (1998) 287±296
L.W. Gappera, B.Y. Fonga, D.E. Ottera, H.E. Indykb, D.C. Woollardci (2004). Determination of nitrite and nitrate in dairy products by ion exchange LC with spectrophotometric detection. International Dairy Journal 14 (2004) 881–887
Alejandra Carreon-Alvarez, Azucena Herrera-Gonzalez, Norberto Casillas, Rogelio Prado-Ramirez, Mirna Estarron-Espinosa, Victor Sot, Wencel de la Cruz and Maximiliano Barcena-Soto. (2011). Cu (II) removal from tequila using an ion-exchange resin. Food Chemistry. 127, p1503-1509.
Ingrid Hayenga. (2011). Determination of Organic Acids in Wine and Fruit Juices with Ion Exclusion Chromatography. AnalytiX. 6
Thermo-scientific. (1997). Ion Chromatography: A Versatile Technique for the Analysis of Beer. Application note 46.

Pictures
http://www.saconference.co.za/3s-composition/uploads/2014/02/1543830712_1388913492.jpg
http://www.islonline.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/mexico2.jpg
http://www.ciawhisky.com.br/loja/media/catalog/product/cache/1/image/9df78eab33525d08d6e5fb8d27136e95/g/r/grd_2254_tequila_20jose_20cuervo_20ouro.jpg
http://360telemetry.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/beer.jpg

Importance
Naturally occurring ions that are part of the nitrogen cycle.

In the presence of nitrite, the oxygen carrying hemoglobin in our blood can be converted to methemoglobin, which cannot carry oxygen.

High methemoglobin levels leads to digestive and respiratory problems, anoxia, brain damage or even death.

Regulatory upper limits applied to the production of milk-based infant formulas are generally low.


40mg/kg for nitrate
0.5 mg/kg for nitrite).
Problem
Traditional methods used:
segmented flow
flow-injection analysis

vulnerable to redox and other interferences potentially present in foods and biological matrices

overwhelming presence of free amino acids, peptides and organic acids prevents the reliable estimation of nitrate and nitrite
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