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Planet Earth

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Therese Mendoza

on 16 March 2015

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Transcript of Planet Earth

Planet Earth
A Presentation by:

Christine Mendoza
Before we learn about Earth,we should first learn where its name actually came from!
Most planets have names which come from Greek and Roman mythology, but (besides Sedna) Earth is the only planet which has a name not derived from mythology. "Earth" comes from the Anglo-Saxon word "Erda" (Erdaz), which means ground or soil, and its Germanic equivalent "erde" which also means ground or soil.
Although the name Earth does not come from Greek or Roman mythology, Earth or Mother Earth is also known in mythology as Gaia (meaning Earth).
The Name of Planet Earth
So, to Begin Actually Learning About Earth.....
how was Earth discovered?
The Earth is visible by the naked eye since humans have lived here since they first started to exist through God. Therefore, Earth was discovered at the beginning of humanity (there is no precise date we know) and by Adam and Eve.
Where in the Universe is Earth?
(Position of Earth in the Universe)
Earth is the third planet from the sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, and the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets.It orbits about 149,598,262 km (1 AU) from the sun. (The distance from the Earth to the sun is where we get the length for an AU, or Astronomical Unit.) The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun at 18.5 miles (30 km) per second, or about 66,600 mph, which completes one full cycle (one revolution) every 365.25 days.
The Basics
More on Position in the Solar System...
Though the sun and all the planets in the solar system rotate on one general plane, called the elliptical plane, they move around quite a bit on the plane (Sort of like the many movements in my presentation!).
Earth's distance from the sun varies during its wobbly orbit. In January, the Earth is about 5 million km (3%) closer to the sun than in July. This evidently doesn't affect the weather on Earth, though; in space, the length is not much compared to the size of the solar system, and we still have pretty cold winters in January in the Northern Hemisphere!
That is not to mention that Earth wobbles on its axis, too...
Earth's Orbit
The World goes Round and Round...
Since we have already discussed some points including the basics of Earth's orbit in the topic of positioning, we shall move on to the topic of what Earth's orbit does to Earth.
Earth's orbit affects seasons on Earth. Since Earth is on a tilt which is on an axis that always points in the same direction (towards the North Star), some places in the North and South hemispheres will be exposed at a more direct angle to the sun than others at certain parts of the year, giving that place more energy and heat.
(And so, we go into seasons.)
The time with more direct exposure to the sun and therefore more heat, we term summer and the time with less exposure to the sun and therefore less heat we term winter.
For example, when the Northern hemisphere is more tilted to the sun, it is summer there and winter in the Southern hemisphere.
On the other side of the orbit, when the Southern hemisphere is more tilted to the sun, it is summer there and winter in the Northern hemisphere.
A quarter of the way through the orbit, the Earth is in such a position that the sun's rays are shining equally on each hemisphere and it is fall and spring, respectively.
Three-quarters of a way through the orbit, and the Earth is again in such a position that the sun's rays are shining equally on each hemisphere and it is spring and fall, respectively.
However, the tilt of Earth and the orbit does not affect the tropical climate of the equator much as the sun shines directly on the equator year-round.
Whew! We just went through the

whole orbit of Earth around the sun!
Rotation on Earth's Axis
Wheee!! That movement was an example of a near rotation.
Besides orbiting, another movement the Earth makes is rotating on its axis.
It takes Earth about 24 hours in respect to the sun or 23 hours and 56 minutes in respect to the stars to rotate on its own axis. Earth rotates on an imaginary line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole through the center of Earth.
(Random) Fun Fact as the Earth goes in multiple circles.....

Did you know? If you hold your thumb up, your fingers curl in the direction the Earth moves.
(Rotation of Earth cont.)
The Earth rotates at 1,675 km/hour or 465 meters/sec (at the equator) from West to East, giving the impression of the sun rising every day from the East and setting in the West, and causing night and day.
Earth on its Axis
Since the Earth spins on its axis, we shall learn a little more about the axis before going on to our next topic.
Earth’s axis is tilted at about 23.6 degrees. Earth’s axis always points in the same direction, towards the North Star. (However since the Earth’s movement is wobbly when it spins, every 20,000 years the Earth wobbles enough for us to get a new North Star.)
Earth On its Axis (cont.)
A reason for Earth's tilt is that it may have been caused by a collision with another body billions of years ago.
Perhaps when God was forming Earth, He caused another celestial body to crash into Earth to cause the tilt which gives us our beautiful seasons.
MY OH MY, SO LARGE!!!!!!!!!!
(Earth's size)
Planet Earth is the largest of the four terrestrial planets at 5,972,190,000,000,000 billion kg in mass. Its equatorial diameter is 12,756 km and its polar diameter is 12,714 km. Its Equatorial circumference is 40,030 km. It is the fifth largest planet in the solar system.
What of Size Compared to other Planets?
The planets larger than Earth are about 4 times to 10 times larger than Earth while the planets smaller than it are from 38% to 95% the size of Earth.
Gravity is important in keeping things close -- us close to Earth, the Moon close to the Earth, and the Earth close to the Sun.
The force of gravity at the surface of Earth is 9.807 m/s2 .

About Comparisons...A 100 pound person would weigh the same here; the 100 pounds are based off Earth's gravity.
A Final Word on the Basics...Is it Hot or Cold?
(Earth's Temperature)
The temperature range on Earth is variable. It depends on the Sun; places like those on the equator receive more direct sunlight and are therefore hotter than places near the poles which do not receive direct sunlight. In addition, cloud cover and the atmosphere prevent heat from escaping, so more humid areas may have a steadier temperature. During the night, there is no sun and it is therefore cooler than during the day.
More than anything else, the temperature on Earth is suited for life to happen. The normal temperatures are 18 to 27 degrees Celsius or 64 to 80.6 degrees Fahrenheit.
Want some Temperature Records?
Although the temperatures on Earth are suited with life needs, we also have some record breaking temperatures in the Poles and near the Equator!
The highest temperature on Earth ever recorded was 136 degrees Fahrenheit (58 degrees Celsius) in the Libyan desert. The lowest temperature on Earth ever recorded was -126 degrees Fahrenheit (-88 degrees Celsius) at Vostok Station in Antarctica.
Now you have learned a lot about what makes up the conditions of Earth.
As we fly on on the winds of growth....
...we will now start from the inside out to finish building our image and knowledge of Earth.
Earth's Interior
Composition of Earth
Earth is a terrestrial planet, or a rocky planet. The dark, unexposed-to-the-sun inside of Earth is made up of different layers.
The Layers
Based on the observation of the seismic waves, scientists are able to differentiate the thin, solid, rock/soil crust; the moho (the boundary between the crust and the mantle); the thick mantle, which is underneath the crust; the upper mantle, which includes a solid layer
to the crust; the thick lower mantle, which is partly molten and has solid rock under high pressure and temperature; the thick outer core, which has the properties of a metallic liquid, and the inner core, which is a solid, spherical, metallic layer about 755 miles thick.
As you get lower in Earth there is higher temperature and pressure. That is why rocks can form underground and why some of the layers of Earth are molten.
We have now finally built up the conditions and the inside of the Earth in our heads.
Now we can complete our picture of the Earth by trekking across its crust.
Let us grow/glow/go on!
The Crust and Appearance of Earth
In the following slides ensues a rant about Earth and its beauty.
We live on the Earth’s crust, which has tectonic plates that can cause earthquakes, mountains, and volcanoes. A little inside Earth you can find many fossils, oils, rocks, shells, and the ocean which gets darker as you get deeper and has many gray/red/every-color-of-the-rainbow fish and waving orange/red/green plants/reefs distorted by water and depth.
In Earth you may also find hot, glowing lava and cold, dripping gray/orange caves. There is fungi, algae and bacteria (in Earth) of every color of the rainbow (found in the blue sky), but also gems of clear diamonds, deep green emeralds, and blood-red rubies.
There are rich, brown or red soil sustaining dark evergreen plants which help us make modern houses with intricate carvings and plastics which stand out boldly from nature. The stripes of the zebra, the growl of the tiger, the call of the robin, and the chatter of humans also stand out in Earth.
Besides all this is also clear, frothy water running in the veins of not only our bodies but animals’ and plants’ bodies and the veins of the Earth. The Earth sweats water in a misty, cold fog being struck through by people lighting red, orange, and yellow fires.
Earth looks like a beautiful marble surrounded by soft, glowing lavender space phenomena, distant diamond-like stars, the silvery moon, and the lively flaming sun. Cities glow with lights and fires while jungles lie untraveled with tropical birds such as bright parakeets. The Earth itself is recognizable by its swirls of white clouds, turquoise waters, and green land dotted with parts of coarse brown (deserts) and an inconsistent gray (evidence of lively cities and technology).
The bright land stands out against the dark waters, even at night, with rigid forms and sturdy shores, though there are no definite geometric shapes, as the Earth isn't one still, inactive object floating in space. The Earth rotates very quickly as day wears into night, and also orbits the long miles of a revolution every year around the sun. Earth makes itself known as a diverse, colorful, welcoming home.
Now, we have finally got a complete image of Earth.
Or do we????
Earth needs a shell around it, after all.
The Atmosphere
The Basics of the Atmosphere
The Earth’s atmosphere is rather thick at about 400 to 40,000 miles tall. Our atmosphere is made of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.9% argon, 0.03% carbon dioxide, 0.0% to 4.0% water vapor, and trace gases found in very small amounts such as neon, helium, krypton, and xenon.
Ze Uses....of Ze Gases...
The nitrogen dilutes oxygen and prevents rapid burning of the Earth’s surface. Living things need it to make proteins, though we can’t use it directly from the air. Oxygen is used by all living things and is essential for breathing, combustion, or burning. Argon is used in lightbulbs.
The Uses of the Gases (continued)
The carbon dioxide is used by plants which make oxygen, acts as a blanket, and prevents the escape of heat into outer space. Scientists are afraid that fossil fuel burning is adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Water vapor is essential to life processes and prevents heat from escaping earth. All this air starts out very thick at sea level but thins into outer space as you go higher up in the atmosphere.
Different Layers of a Multiple Ingredient Cake
The atmosphere is like a cake. Besides having different types of air (cake ingredients), the atmosphere has different layers, including the troposphere, lower atmosphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, middle atmosphere, thermosphere, exosphere, and upper atmosphere.
Delving Into the Cake Layers...
The bottom part of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is where we walk around and breathe. It is also where weather and storms form. The troposphere is up to five (at Poles) to ten (at equator) miles above the Earth’s surface and contains about 75% of the air in the atmosphere. It gets colder as you go up, as low as -103 degrees Fahrenheit. The troposphere makes up the lower atmosphere.
Delving deeper.....
The next layer is the stratosphere, which is 10-31 miles above the Earth’s surface. This is where the protective ozone layer floats; the concentration of protective ozone peaks at about 14 miles up. The stratosphere has 20% of the air molecules in the atmosphere and gets warmer as you go up.
And Deeper.....................................
Farther above the stratosphere, 31 to 50 miles above Earth’s surface, is the mesosphere, where shooting stars blaze as space debris begins to burn up as it enters the mesosphere. As you leave Earth, the temperature drops as low as -130 degrees Fahrenheit at the top of the layer.

The stratosphere and mesosphere make up the middle atmosphere.
And Further......Does it feel hot in here?
The thermosphere is above the mesosphere (50 to 400 miles above Earth) and is very
warm (tying to its name) because even though the air there is thin, it absorbs so much solar radiation that the temperature can reach up to 440 degrees Fahrenheit. The thermosphere also contains the ionosphere and magnetosphere.
You're almost out, but not quite...
The ionosphere has electrically charged particles which can interfere with radio broadcasts. Charged particles in the magnetosphere are affected by the magnetic field of Earth and under the correct conditions can create the beautiful Northern and Southern Lights.
You've got in and out! But now you can't breathe at all...
Above the thermosphere is the farthest layer of the atmosphere, the exosphere. It is 400 to 40,000 miles above Earth. There, the air dwindles into nothing as molecules drift into space. The thermosphere and exosphere make up the outer atmosphere.
How Does this Shell/Cake Help Us?
The atmosphere helps us by providing air for us and plants to breathe; protecting us from UV radiation which can harm our skin; preventing heat from escaping earth which would lead us to freeze or fry; and being a place where weather happens like rain and breezes.
The atmosphere also helps us by: protecting us from objects like meteoroids because the friction causes meteorites to burn up in the atmosphere; providing air for things like birds and bees to pollinate plants; and providing a medium, air, for us to hear. In addition, without air on earth, we would expand then explode in empty space.
We have finally gotten a complete picture of Earth.
Therefore, we must explore off Earth to its satellite.
To the Moon, here we come!

(I know. That was really cheesy.)
The Moon
Appearance: Look like 100 shades of Grey to you?
The Moon looks gray to the human eye and has some craters (as mentioned before). On the moon, there is no wind or weather, so the astronaut will always leave an imprint wherever they go. Even though it isn’t the largest natural satellite of the solar system, among the satellites of major planets, it’s the largest relative to the size of the object it is orbiting.
Basic Climate/Gravity Facts
The Moon is 238,900 miles away from Earth, is 6,784 miles in circumference, and has been an object of curiosity for quite some time -- it is estimated to have been made 4.527 billion years ago. It has been seen by humans each night but only on July 20 of 1969 did people set foot on the Moon. The gravity on the Moon is 1.622 m/s2 (0.17 of Earth’s gravity), so although astronauts are prevented from flying straight off into space every time they move, they still have less trouble getting off the ground and are lighter than on Earth.
Its Growing and Shrinking! Its Gone! Its Back...
(Moon Phases)
The Moon has different phases,which repeat over again at the end of an orbital period and are the shapes of the sunlit portion of the moon as seen by an observer on Earth. The moon phases change cyclically as the moon orbits the Earth according to the changing positions of the Moon and sun relative to Earth. The phases include the new moon (which lasts for a few days and is when you cannot see the moon); waxing crescent (should be self explanatory); 1st quarter (half of moon is able to be seen); waxing gibbous; full moon (all of moon is able to be seen); waning gibbous (after growing, moon appears to be getting smaller); last quarter (half of moon is able to be seen); waning crescent (should also be self explanatory); and again the new moon.
Where around Earth did the Moon come from?
Before learning about the Moon, we've got to know where it came from!
There are various theories of how the Moon was created. However, there is recent evidence which indicates that a huge collision tore part of Earth away when Earth was still molten. The impactor could have been about 10% the size of Earth, about the size of Mars. From the way that the Earth and Moon are similar in composition, scientists conclude that the impact must have happened about 95 million years after the solar system was formed. Other theories include that two young moons could have collided with each other to form one large Moon, or that Earth could have even stolen the Moon from Venus.
From the Inside Out
The Moon has an internal structure similar to Earth, having layers including: a solid iron core; a partly molten outer core (insert picture here); a lithosphere, and the solid crust. The core is very small, being about 1-2% of the mass of the moon and about 420 miles wide. Though it mostly consists of iron, it may also contain a lot of sulfur and other elements. Its rocky mantle is approximately 825 miles thick and is made of dense rocks with a lot of magnesium and iron. In the past, magmas in the mantle made their way to the surface of the moon and erupted volcanically for more than a billion years from at least 4 billion years ago to fewer than 3 billion years ago. The crust is about 42 miles deep.
The Crust of the Bread!
Due to all the large impacts it has received, the outermost part of the crust is jumbled and broken and is a shattered zone which gives way to intact material below a depth of approximately 6 miles. On the surface of the Moon, there is no air pressure and the temperature range is from about -280 degrees Fahrenheit (-173 degrees Celsius) at night to 260 degrees Fahrenheit (127 degrees Celsius) at daytime at the equator. (A great reason to wear spacesuits on the Moon- our bodies are adapted to air pressure and about 60-80 degree Fahrenheit temperatures. Spacesuits protect us from outer space’s different conditions.) Our large natural satellite always presents the same face to Earth as it completes an orbit of Earth in about the same time it takes to complete one rotation.
By the way, just so you know, Earth has one moon- The Moon. The Moon is the Earth’s only natural satellite, with each orbital period finishing every 27 days.
Deeper into the Surface
On the surface of the Moon, there are dark plains which are actually volcanic features called seas, or “maria.” The first human landing with the Apollo 11 took place on the Sea of Tranquility. The surface composition of the Moon is rocky like the four inner planets. However, it is also marked with craters which came from asteroid impacts from millions of years ago and which have not eroded because there is no weather. The lunar surface is about 43% oxygen, 20% silicon, 19% magnesium, 10% iron, 3% calcium, 3% aluminum, 0.42% chromium, 0.18% titanium, and 0.12% manganese. Orbiters have also found traces of water on the surface which may have come from deep underground. There are also hundreds of pits that could house explorers who remain long-term on the moon.
Besides having a surface and inside, the Moon also has an atmosphere, albeit a very thin one. Since it is thin, a layer of dust or a footprint can sit undisturbed for centuries. Heat is not held near the surface and temperatures vary wildly.
By now, you know that the Moon is a lot like the Earth besides the varying gravity and color. However, there is one exception.
You see, the Earth has seasons because of its tilt. However, since the tilt of the moon’s axis is only about 1.5 degrees (very small compared to our tilt of 23.5 degrees) the moon virtually has no seasons. Some areas are always lit by the sun and other parts are perpetually draped in shadow.
After all this information about the Moon, you are probably wondering about how the Moon affects our everyday lives, anyway.

Well, for one, the Moon affects many things on Earth. For two, we built expensive space equipment like the Apollo 11, to land there.
Also, the Moon affects our tides. Tides are the alternate rising and falling of the sea, usually twice in each lunar day at a particular place due to the attraction of the moon, Earth, and sun, especially the gravitational attraction or pull of the Earth and Moon on each other. You can see the churning sea I am speaking of in the background, by the way.
More on the Tides!
This gravitational attraction between the Moon and Earth causes the oceans to bulge out in the direction of the moon and another bulge occurs on the opposite side, since the Earth is also being pulled towards the moon by gravity and the Earth is being pulled away from the water on the far side.
Even More Ups and Downs...
Since Earth is rotating while this pulling occurs, two (high, bulging upward) tides occur each day. Low tides, which are when water drops down, occur between the two humps. There are also small tides in lakes, the atmosphere, and in Earth’s crust.
Speaking of Tides...
Did you know? Besides affecting the Earth's tides, the pull of the moon is also causing tidal breaking, which is how it is slowing the Earth’s rotation. Every century, the length of our day is increased by 2.3 milliseconds. This energy being lost by Earth is being picked up by the Moon which increases its distance from Earth by 3.8 centimeters annually.
Even more significant to Earth is that the pull of gravity of the moon may also have been a key to making Earth a livable planet by moderating how much the Earth wobbles in its axial tilt, which led to a relatively stable climate over billions of years where everything could flourish.
What about Earth's affect on the Moon?
Besides the Moon’s gravity affecting many things on Earth, the Earth’s gravity affects the Moon. The Earth’s gravity helps the Moon and the Earth pull towards each other. In addition, according to a new study, the Earth’s gravity stretched the Moon into its odd lemon shape early in its lifetime.
Lots of ol' involvement...
The Moon can also be involved in a lunar eclipse, which is when the moon passes into the Earth’s shadow (shadow caused by sun shining on Earth) and appears darkened. A lunar eclipse can only happen during a full moon and when Earth gets between the sun and the moon.
The Moon can also be involved in a solar eclipse, which happens when the moon gets directly or almost directly between the sun and Earth and the moon’s shadow falls on us. Solar eclipses can only happen during a new moon. Eclipses on Earth are rare, as they require specific alignment of celestial bodies, usually in a straight line.
E is for Exploration
I have mentioned before how the Moon has always been an object of curiosity. That is why we explored it and researched it. People first thought the Moon was a bowl of fire, reflected the Earth, had seas and land, and was
Galileo Galilei, a pioneering
er, was the first to use a
to make scientific observations of the moon and, in 1609, described a rough, mountainous surface.
In 1959, the Soviet Union sent the first spacecraft to impact the moon’s surface and got the first photos of its far side. In addition, as mentioned before, the US landed the first astronauts on the moon in 1969, followed by 5 more successful missions and one, Apollo 13, which didn’t make it to the moon. This was done by NASA famously and returned 842 lbs. of rocks and soil to Earth for study.
Exploration in the 1990s by US robotic missions Clementine and Lunar Prospector suggested water might be present at the lunar poles, which were proved real in 2009 by a joint launch of more lunar aircraft. In 2011, NASA also sent back the best moon map ever. In 2013, China landed historically a robotic rover on the Moon.
Besides countries exploring the moon, in 2014 the first private moon mission launched to study the satellite. Private exploration like this may be the first step in the process to mine the moon, though legalities and ownerships remain controversial. The moon remains the only extraterrestrial body that humans have ever visited.

We are nearing the end.
Let us finish...
...with a bit about life.
How Earth is Unique
(Not) Rings
The Earth has no rings orbiting our planet which have been discovered. There are, however, satellites and spacecraft such as the International Space Station which go around Earth or stay around Earth as signs of human innovation and exploration. They can help astronauts visiting outer space to explore what is beyond this world. The Magnetic Field and atmosphere also surround Earth, including the rings of our imagination.
How Would A Human Being Fare on Earth?
Since Earth can support life, a human being would feel perfectly normal on the planet, preferably if the human was in a place where there was growth, food, water, and a mild climate. In some places such as the Poles, a human would feel very cold, whereas near the Equator, a human may feel rather hot, and in the middle, a human would feel just fine. The human may also prefer certain climates over others.
How is Earth Special?
The Earth is special as the largest terrestrial planet with the largest satellite in comparison to it. It is special as the only known planet able to support life, and of course, it is special in its beauty and that it is our home.
1) Google
2) http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/earth.htm
3) http://www.space.com/55-earths-moon-formation-composition-and-orbit.html
4) http://nineplanets.org/earth.html
5) Mr. Stanton's Planet Earth PowerPoint
6) http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/overview.html
7) http://www.scienceterrific.com/atmosphere_function_quiz.php
8) http://teachertech.rice.edu/Participants/louviere/comp.html
9) http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/apollo11.html
10) Google Images
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