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Politics of transnationalism
Transcript of Politics of transnationalism
Outside the borders of the state = easier for resistance
Cfr. Lybians in exile communities becoming transnational.
no longer bound by boarders. States include members outside of borders Symbolic purpose
Economic purpose: development Remittances
Dual membership Rahel Kunz: Neo-liberal governmentality Responsibilisation and disciplining
Diaspora: responsibility in development
Creation of neo-liberal subjectivities: Migrants as heroes (conceptual dimension)
Courting diaspora (institutional dimension)
Migrants as entrepreneurs (subjectivity dimension) Arrêté interministériel n°130/CAB/MINAFFECI/014 du 13 juillet 2006 Creation of “Direction des Congolais de l'Etranger” (DCE) Article 2: The DCE is in charge of the orientation, flollow-up and the protection of interests of the Congolese living abroad
Conceptual dimension: constituting diaspora as objects and subjects of governing See also Ordonnance n° 07/018 (2007): Identification, census and follow-up of Congolese abroad Institutional dimension: Article 3: The DCE must encourage, coordinate and make profitable the initiatives of Congolese abroad, by assisting them in case of need and promoting their implication in the development of the RDC
Article 6: The DCE is in charge of assisting the Congolese diaspora in identifying investment projects useful for the social progress of the DRC and susceptible of favouring their future reinsertion in the Congolese society
Responsibilisation and disciplining: diaspora become responsible for development sin / illness Vincente Fox
Diaspora still Mexicans return migrants: "pochos" Migration = Migration from problem
to opportunity pre- 1980s 1980s beginning to shift
concept of Diaspora 2000s Conceptual Shift Institutional Practices Mexicans able to hold
dual citizenship 1996 2003 Invierte en Mexico 2002 IME established 3x1 Program Government match funds Investment of remittances in small businesses Subjectivity Creation Normalisation Male
Remittances to family
Donates to HTA
Initiates development projects
Invests in Mexican businesses
Politically Active Resistance Non-compliance
> Non participation in 3x1
> use power against gov “In many cases, the magnitude, duration, and impact of migration is so strong that migrant social networks mature into transnational social fields or public spheres spanning the sending and receiving country.” Levitt “these [transnational social fields] extend beyond the chains of social relations and kin that are specific to each person located within them” Transnational spheres are not only bounded to migration from specific sending countries to certain specific reception regions.
Spheres can be broad or more specific. Levitt Critique “those who have been exiled or displaced to a number of different nation states by a variety of economic, political and social forces” Levitt Kunz “a self-identified ethnic group, with a specific place of origin, which has been globally dispersed through voluntary or forced migration” Werbner "deterritorialized imagined communities who consider themselves as, despite their dissemination, having a common past and a common future” distinction between transnational communities, their overarching less organized social fields and the overall context of economic and cultural globalization. Two main differences: de-linked from specific national territories.
both change the daily lives of individuals BUT in a different and complementary way. Baia
Vertovec Should governments take diasporas into consideration? If yes, in what way? It's all about the sending countries (now). collecting data
courting strategy Should governments take into account the transnational nature of migration:
do they do this?
should they do this?
how can they do this? What is the future of borders? Feel free to discuss What happens/will happen with 2nd and 3rd generation of migrants?