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Dr. Shakeel Qureshi's Residence
Transcript of Dr. Shakeel Qureshi's Residence
Chapter 4, M.Phil. Thesis - Ms. Tehreem
Dr. Shakeel Qureshi's Residence
Architectural Design & Materials
A Case Study of Energy Efficient Architecture
Process of Design
Site & Location
Model Town is one of the best residential societies of upper income groups in Lahore.
Developing countries are brain-washed into rejecting traditional values and adopting industrial methods of modern day. Tradition has been made synonymous to backwardness which has changed the 'man to nature' relationship badly.
"Heritage buildings are energy efficient, do not need air-conditioning; & are environment friendly with the use of local materials and indigenous techniques” - Dr. Shakeel Qureshi
Negative aspects of modern building include being energy intensive and environment degrading with the use of imported and industrialized materials.
"To restore man-nature relationship, we need to adopt sustainability, which means to meet the needs of the present without compromising the abilities of future generation to meet their needs" - Dr. Shakeel Qureshi.
Sustainability comes through 'Green Architecture‘, which is reverting to heritage architecture. Historical buildings are reservoirs of traditional wisdom in architecture.
Model Town Extension, on the other hand, is ill-planned, with middle and lower middle income groups.
The house is on plot 57 in S-block of Model Town Extension Lahore.
Plot’s location has many undesirable environmental features. It is at the end of S-Block, facing informal settlements. The road to which the plot faces has slanted the axis of the plot.
Congested neighborhood has high-density population of middle and lower-middle income groups. A large open sewer drain is passing nearby, which is a major negative environmental element.
At NCA, he was the first Director of Research and Publication Center, and retired in 2009 as Director of M.Phil / PhD Center for Cultural Heritage Conservation & Management. Following that, he served as Chairman Resource Development Institute (RDI) Rawalpindi, and presently runs his consultancy “Shakeel Qureshi Associates” at Lahore.
Dr. Shakeel also served as Chairman Institute of Architects Pakistan (IAP) Lahore Chapter, as Executive Member Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners (PCATP), the first Honorary Secretary of Alumni Association NCA, and Co-Convener of “Geo-Thermal Energy” of the Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI). He is also a member of American Planning Association (APA), a member of Pakistan Writers Guild, and was conferred as an Associate of NCA by its Board of Governors. His areas of special interest include “Research Methodology in Art and Architecture”, “Sustainable Architecture”, “Appropriate Building Materials”, and “Housing for the Urban Poor in Developing Countries.”
Principles of Design
Dr. Shakeel Qureshi – Architect, Academician, and Researcher – got his architectural education from National College of Arts (NCA) Lahore, University of Engg. & Technology (UET) Lahore, Technical University Poland, and Ph.D. from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University USA. He has over 37 years of experience in teaching and practicing Architecture.
Lahore’s climate is normal composite. It has a mix of all seasons in a year.
Winters in Lahore, however, are shorter than summers. Temperature during winter can be as low as zero degree centigrade (January/ February).
It is very hot during summers as temperature can be as high as 46 degrees centigrade (June/ July).
It becomes hot-humid during monsoon (August/September), whereas, May and June remain hot-dry.
This mix of high and low temperature with high and low relative-humidity poses main challenge for environmental control. The most uncomfortable season in Lahore is hot-humid, which prevails during August and September. Temperature as well as relative humidity remains high.
Thermal performance in a space depends upon a number of factors. They include temperature, relative humidity, ventilation, air-movement, volume of space, and finishing of surfaces. The house was designed for optimum thermal performance without resorting to mechanical means of controlling temperature.
The house was built on a relatively small site of 2250 sq. yards, yet, needed to consist of 4 Bed Rooms, Dining, Lounge, 4 Bathrooms, and a car porch.
House needed to have maximum possible green area, should be comfortable and inexpensive to construct and maintain.
This area with stairs connecting split level-spaces on left and right acts as a buffer zone to protect lounge and other living rooms from direct sun from south-east during summer.
Planning of the house is organized through a grid. All elements including floor pattern, ceiling pattern, divisions of doors, windows, and cabinets, follow the same grid. It gives a systematic look to all elements and features.
Moisture from the roof gardens is carried by the air being recycled into the duct. The moisture is then either absorbed by the porous brick lining of the shaft, or condenses on the GI pipe.
Green terraces on the roof are connected with one stair-case. Intensive greenery protects external wall and windows from sun. Cool air passes through the green terraces soothing the harsh heat of summer.
Ceiling light of the bird cage is designed by using mirrors that multiply the light of one energy saver many folds.
These spaces are planned in split-levels in such a way that the level difference between two adjacent spaces, or sets of spaces, is not more than a few steps
R.C.C T-beam system is used for slabs, thereby cutting down volume of R.C.C used. Thus, in spite of heavy load of roof gardens, R.C.C slabs are only 3 inches thick with minimal reinforcement.
Semi-circular, fair face brick arches of standard size are used, which transfer the loads of the superstructure to brick columns.
This cuts down quantity of brick work used, since the area under the arches are non load-bearing.
The transfer of loads onto brick columns also reduces need for extended walls, thus making living spaces considerably more open.
A large mirror on the dead wall of lounge reflects natural lights and gardens view to the lounge.
In order to control energy loss through walls and openings, spaces have been planned such that no living space receives direct sunlight. North East facade has a covering of creepers that also prevents direct sunlight from reaching living spaces.
Energy losses through the roof are controlled with the help of roof gardens, which provide insulation.
Ambient air temperature depends on the macro- and micro-climates of the area. Since seasonal and diurnal temperature variations decrease in amplitude underground, air is conducted into a pipe 10 feet under the house. Warm air in summers is cooled by coming into contact with cooler surfaces, and is spread throughout the house through a system of ducts and vents that run along the house walls.
This 'earth cooling pipe' runs alongside a galvanized iron pipe that carries cold water in summers, and warm water (through a geyser) in winters; cooling and warming air as required. Mechanical appliances in this system are controlled by an automatic timer.
Energy Efficient Architecture: A+I (Architecture + Interior magazine) by: Gulnaz Shakeel
Photographs by: Dr. S. Shakeel
Faiza Rana Dildar