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EAP; The Reading Skill
Transcript of EAP; The Reading Skill
Addressing Culture and Background Knowledge of Students
Major Issues in
Academic Reading - Students and Teachers
Misinterpret text and how words modify and interact with each other
Cultural background of the students.
Lack of vocabulary knowledge·
Difficulty level of texts
Low language proficiency
Lack of motivation - exhibit negative behavior, feelings, and cognitions that affect their learning process (goal-oriented behavior)
Success will determine students' future, with the stressthis gives to them.
Studying to pass a test and not learning reading skills
Different/unfamiliar reading strategies
Vocabulary, cognitive abilities and metacognitive strategies are compared to native language
Important aspects of reading strategies:
Reading as a problem-solving process.
Create knowledge base
Reading out loud
Using aids such as tables, diagrams, note taking
Organizing information leading to a better understanding of the linking between points and ideas.
The identification of key words and main ideas
Re-writing and Re-reading
Summarize points instead of copying word for word
Reading involves more than just extracting the meaning from the written text but rather involves the need to make sense of the surrounding world
“With this paradigm, readers view a text through a socially located and individual perspective, and in order to comprehend a text, readers must decipher it through the lens of their surrounding social relations and interactions. (Blanton, 1998; Kress, 2003)” (pg. 42)
Blanton speaks of readers that should “bring their own thoughts and experience to bear” when they are reading, “in other words, readers use their own thoughts and experiences in order to talk to and interact with a text for the purposes of implication, exploration, and disagreement (Blanton, 1998; Spellmeyer, 1998; Wallace, 2003)” (pg, 43)
“Wallace (2003) further recognizes a dimension of power- noting that reading involves a shifting and dynamic relationship between text producers, text receivers, and the text itself. (2003, p.9)” (pg. 43)
“textual context is never monolithic or monologic but dialogic and socially-situated.” (pg. 43)
Does background knowledge(discipline related knowledge) compensate for low language proficiency?
English language proficiency versus subject knowledge. Does discipline knowledge help students in reading for academic purposes?
Uso-Juan's Study Findings:
-Discipline related knowledge and English language proficiency always contribute to EAP reading performance
-Successful EAP reading is possible without discipline knowledge if English proficiency if advanced or intermediate.
-EAP reading is aided by discipline related knowledge if language proficiency is low.
How to measure reading and change in reading quality?·
How to evaluate data gathering?·
What is the comprehension progress?·
Errors in comprehension are in many respects unpredictable, how can we prepare for it?
Questions for discussion
Categories of Reading Approaches
What is EAP Reading
The goal of an EAP reading course is to provide students with the reading skills and strategies needed to meet their English reading requirements (Spector-Cohen, E., Kirschner, M., & Wexler, C. (January 01, 2001). Designing EAP Reading Courses at the University Level. English for Specific Purposes, 20, 4, 367-86).
EAP reading focus on linguistics, de-coding text, and strategies.
Helps the student understand instructions, learn genres, and become part of a discipline.
Helps the students understand the world around them: how to register for a class, how to participate in a discussion and more.
•How would you assess student progress and comprehension during an EAP course? Plan a schedule and ways to assess those variables.
•What are the strategies and approaches a teacher should use in a culturally intermixed EAP reading class? How would it be different in a class with only one kind of population?
•Quantity of reading VS. Quality of reading what is more important in academic reading? What is the right balance?
Noorizah Mohd. Noor. ESL learners’ reading approaches of an academic expository text 3L The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Vol 16 (2) 2010.
Metacognitive Strategies: What strategies are used by EAP readers to aid their comprehension of the text?
Types of strategies. (Handout)
“Effective learners are goal directed and have developed metacognitive knowledge and control concerning strategies best matched to specific task demands.” Shih, 1992
Approaches to Teaching Vocabulary
Vocabulary in Context
Crucial term identification
Johnson & Steele (1996)
(Hu & Nassaji, 2012)
Examples of Vocabulary Building Strategies
* Think Like an EAP Student
Published on Mar 18, 2013
Cambridge University Press author Michael McCarthy answers your questions about English. More resources for studying English at: http://www.selfstudy.cambridge.org/
Metacognitive Knowledge & Strategies
Shih, May (1992) Beyond Comprehension Exercises in the ESL Academic Reading Class. TESOL Quarterly.
Conceptual- Discipline related knowledge. Knowledge, ideas and concepts gained from other classes, worksheets etc.
Text Structure- How students get information from text such as topic sentences, titles, summaries etc.
Metacognitive- Students are aware of how they learn and what they learn. They adapt their reading skills around this knowledge
Students comprehend text by actively constructing meaning, integrating information from the text with relevant information from their background knowledge (Rumelhart, 1980)
The Compensatory Nature of Discipline-Related Knowledge and English-Language Proficiency in Reading English for Academic Purposes Esther Usó-Juan The Modern Language Journal , Vol. 90, No. 2 (Summer, 2006), pp. 210-227
Why is metacognitive knowledge important for EAP?