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Contextual Teaching and Learning
Transcript of Contextual Teaching and Learning
The theory curriculum and Teaching Methodology related to the students’ experience and needs. The philosophy of Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) is from progressive and cognitive theory.
The purpose of Contextual Teaching Learning helps the student to comprehend their subject and correlate it with their life, so the own knowledge of student is dynamic and flexible to construction in their real life well.
The Basic Principles (Theory Of Learning)
Strategies Of Contextual Teaching And Learning
In the classroom teaching learning process, the application of constructivism are applied in five step of learning that are activating knowledge, acquiring knowledge, understanding knowledge, applying knowledge and reflecting on knowledge.
Inquiry is asking, asking something valuable that related to the topic discussed. Inquiry is defined as “a seeking for truth, information or knowledge- seeking information by questioning.
To question well is to teach well. In the skillful use of the question more than anything else lies fine art of teaching; for in it we have the guide to clear and vivid ideas, and the quick spur of imagination, the stimulus to thought, the incentive to action. What’s in a question, you ask? Everything. It is the way of evoking stimulating response or stultifying inquiring.
4. learning Community
In learning community, the result of learning can be gotten from gathering others and also can be taken from sharing with friends, other groups, and between make out person and not.
Basically, modeling is verbalization of ideas, teacher demonstrates to students to study and acting what the teacher need to be implemented by students.
Reflection is the ways of thinking about what the students have learned and thinking about what the students have done in the past. Reflection is figuration of activity and knowledge that just have received.
the process of collecting the data that can give the description of student learning development. In the process of learning, not only the teacher that can be placed to provide accurate assessments of students. performance, but also students can be extremely effective at monitoring and judging their own language production.
7. Authentic Assessment
1. Improve the understanding that student will learn more effectively through self-learning, self- inquiring, and self-constructing using their own knowledge and experience
2. Do the inquiring activity to achieve desired competences in speaking activity . Try to challenge the students with their own ideas and conceptions to interpret it.
3. Create learning community or learning in groups This step will help student to improve their leadership and their cooperation among the student
A conception of teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter content to real world situations; and motivates students to make connections between knowledge and its applications to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers and engage in the hard work that learning requires. (Berns, 2001)
A system that stimulates the brain to weave patterns that express meaning. Contextual teaching and learning is a brain compatible system of instruction that generates meaning by linking academic content with the context of a student’s daily life. Taking advantage of the fact that the environment stimulates the brain’s neurons to form pathways, the system focuses on context, on relationship. ( Elaine B. Johnson, PH, D 2002 : 16 )
A holistic learning process and aims to helps students to understand the meaning of teaching materials with it to the context of day to day (the context of personal, social and cultural), so that students have the knowledge / skills are dynamic and flexible to actively constructing their own understanding. ( Drs. Bandono, MM, March,7, 2008)
Teaching learning process will be productive if the students are involved actively in the Teaching Learning Process at school. There are some characteristics of the progressive theory:
1. The students will study well if they can construct their understanding.
2. The students must be free so that they can grow naturally.
3. The teacher is as a guide and researcher.
4. There is a correlation between school and society.
5. A progressive school mu8st have a laboratory to do experiment.
Cognitive theory is also a background of the CTL philosophy. The students will study well if they do activities directly in the classroom and they have a chance to find something themselves. The students will get the result of the study through something that they know and what they can do.
Considering the two theories above, constructivism philosophy will develop. The students get knowledge and skills through the context slowly one by one. The students must construct their knowledge themselves. Through constructivism philosophy, CTL is promoted as the choice of the new learning strategy. Through CTL, hopefully the students learn by doing not by memorizing.
There are some propositions of the implication of the constructive theory in the learning process at schools:
1. Learning is the meaningful process of the new information.
2. Freedom is the essential item in the learning environment/area
3. The used learning strategy is to determine the process and the result of learning
4. Learning has social and cultural aspects.
5. Group working is very valuable
The purpose of the constructive learning is to create the activities creatively and productively in the real context.
Speaking class activity
Writing class activity
4. Questioning as a learning tool
5. Do the reflection in the end of learning to make student feel that they have learned something.
1. Engaging students in the writing society
2. Increasing student's motivation to participate actively in the writing class
3. Helping students to construct their writing
4. Helping students to solve their problem
5. Providing ways for students to discuss or interact with their friends
6. Helping the students to summarize and reflect the lesson
ASSESSING THE LEARNING PROCESS
1. Contextual Teaching and Learning approach making that hold meaning.
2. Contextual Teaching and Learning approach self regulated learning.
3. Doing significant work.
4. With Contextual Teaching and Learning approach the student have collaboration.
5. The student is critical and creative thinking.
6. Reaching high standards
7. Contextual Teaching and Learning approach has authentic assessment.
teacher must look at each child in the classroom expressly to understand that child’s emotional state, learning style, English speaking skills, cultural and racial context, and financial circumstance
Contextual also directs our thinking toward experience
a conception of teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter content to real world situations; and motivates students to make connections between knowledge and its applications to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers and engage in the hard work that learning requires.
The task of teachers in contextual teaching and learning is to provide convenience to students, by providing various facilities and learning resources are adequate.
The characteristics of authentic assessment are as follows:
a. carried out during and after the learning process,
b. can be used for formative and summative assessment,
c. the ability measured is skill and performance, not the fact,
d. the assessment must emphasize the students’ depth of knowledge and skills, not the vastness,
e. using various ways and sources,
g. integrated, and
h. can be used as feedback ( Nurhadi , 2003) .