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I/ TEACHING PASSIVE VOICE FOR LEARNERS AND TEACHERS

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Audrey FAMBART

on 4 December 2013

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Transcript of I/ TEACHING PASSIVE VOICE FOR LEARNERS AND TEACHERS

THE PASSIVE VOICE

I/ TEACHING PASSIVE VOICE FOR LEARNERS AND TEACHERS
In grammar :
-Active voice
-Passive voice
II/TYPICAL ERRORS MADE BY LEARNERS
III/ GRAMMAR EXPLANATIONS
Intransitive Verbs
When is PV used?
V/THEORETICAL INSTRUCTIONAL OPTION
Collaborative output task
Active voice
SUBJECT + VERB + DIRECT OBJECT
Passive voice
SUBJECT+a form of BE+PAST PARTICIPLE
Why is the passive often avoided at school?
- It makes our writing weak
-Learners overuse the passive or active voices
-an inappropriate use
-When the agent of the action (person/thing) is not important

If you want to name the agent in a PV sentence :
-use a "by + agent" phrase
-use it when it is necessary
-written or spoken language
-formal or planned language
-informal, ordinary conversations
PV with GET
S + GET +PAST PARTICIPLE
- Thousands of people went to California in the 1840s because gold
discovered
there.
- More than one hundred people
killed
in that plane crash
- The Japanese language
can write
from left to right or from top to bottom.
=
form 'to be' is omitted

-Where were you when the accident
was happened
?
=
'to be' added with an intransitive verb

- If you find a wallet, it should
be returning
to the owner immediately
=
differences / use of ING/ED forms
Activity based on a "jigsaw task" (pair work)
Learners would be able to :
-produce output
-provide opportunities for scaffolding/feedback
-discuss and share ideas (interaction with peers)
Each student has a role:
Interdependence/Individual responsibility/Accountability

By the end of this activity,

Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
The subject is doing something and the direct object is the receiver of the action
The subject is the receiver of the action
Ex : Six detailed emails were written by Mary
Ex : Mary wrote six detailed emails
Why is it important?
-For specific times, the passive is appropriate

It depends on :
-what the writer or speaker wants to accomplish with any given sentence and how that sentence fits into the paragraph
What does a verb in the passive voice look like?
- S + Verb BE + Past Participle
- BE should be in the
correct tense
to indicate the time of the action
- singular or plural according to the number of the subject
Differences of the verb tenses between active and passive voice
Active voice
S+Vb+Direct Object
The most important topic is :
The person or thing that is doing the action
Passive voice
Sentences in passive voice:
- Begin with a subject and have a verb
BUT
-The subject is not the agent of the action
-The subject is the person or thing that "receives" the action of the verb
The subject, is the
agent of the action
Leonardo da Vinci
painted
the famous Mona Lisa
Example with the active voice
Same example with passive voice
The famous Mona Lisa
was painted
by Leornado da Vinci
SUBJECT = Leonardo da Vinci
He did the action : He painted the famous Mona Lisa. He is the
agent of the action
The famous Mona Lisa is
the subject that "received" the action of the verb
S+a form of BE+Past Participle
-They can not be used in the PV
-never followed by a direct object, so they can not be changed to PV

Verbs never used in PV:
happen, die, arrive, depart (and many other verbs of motion)
PV is common in
PV is used
- The "get passive" = a sudden change
- The "be passive" = a result


We
were lost
= a situation
We
get lost
= we were traveling and
suddenly
did not know our location
informal=common in speaking
P.form used as adj
Use the passive vb form:
-to describe a condition / state instead of an action
ex : The window
is closed
you describe
the condition of the window now
Participle adjectives : -ING vs -ED
A
past participle
vb can function as an adj
ex: When I heard the news, I
was surprised
A
present participle
of a verb can also function as an adj
ex: The news
was surprising
Confusion
interested/interesting
confused/confusing etc...
IV/NATIVE LANGUAGE INTERFERENCES
ARABIC
-PV is rare/AV dominates
-PV and AV look similar
-Tend
to confuse PV and AV
in English and
omit the vb BE

ex: The house
built
last year
-"by+agent" = 'b-' (similar) BUT they tend to overuse it :
ex: The letter was written
by
ink
Chinese
-PV exists, but is not formed with to BE + PP
-The agent is marked by 'bei' = facilitate the use of 'by+agent' structure
French
3 ways to express PV:
-Similar to 'be+pp' in English
ex: La souris est mang
ée
par le chat.
BUT :
the pp must agree with the S in number and gender
In English = The plants are watered
s
all night
-Translate "Je m'appelle Ann" by "I call myself Ann" / PV=I am called Ann/More naturally "My name is Ann"
-Use of the pronoun "on" to express passivity
Translate "on parle français ici" by "one speaks French here" / "French is spoken here (PV)


Korean/Japanese
-one word form for PV
-do not involve to be or pp
-Omit be (Mary chosen to work)
(Korean)
-The "by+agent" is often rendered by "from": This book was written from Mary
(Japanese)
-Subject in PV is usually inanimate
-The 'by+agent' is expressed by 'ni' = usually means "in"
Russian
-Special verb form for PV
-Omit be

Spanish
2 principal ways to express PV:
ex : Yo me llamo Ann
=> I call myself Ann
Aqui se habla espagnol
=>[it] speaks Spanish to itself here
-'to be + pp' exists but :
2verbs for to be=
ser
and
estar
(confusion)
The pp must agree with the S in number and gender

Past participle + Preposition as Adj
learners will be able to:
-transform active voice into passive voice
-use and construct passive voice
-use "by+agent" structure

-Teaching PV in higher-level classes
-in intermediate/upper-intermediate/advanced classes
-PV complex for beginners (start with active voice)
-Active voice is controlled and mastered


Passive voice, for which class?
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