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Congo Imperialism

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Kayla Beingessner

on 1 December 2015

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Transcript of Congo Imperialism

King Leopold wanted to establish Belgium as an
imperial power by leading the first efforts to develop the Congo.


Challenges the Congo is facing today
Imperialism in the Congo
Emily, Tiffany, Kayla, Latavia, and Sydney
Background Information and Pre-Imperialism
Map of the Congo
Main ethnic and religious groups
Imperialism
Post-Colonialism (after independence)
The Process of Decolonization and Independence
Government
Economics
Major Events Since Independence
Bibliography
Conclusion

He was drawn to the abundance of gold, copper, diamonds, cobalt and rubber in the Congo
The ethnic groups in the Congo are Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3%. The religious groups in the congo are Roman Catholic 33.1%, Awakening Churches/Christian Revival 22.3%, Protestant 19.9%, Salutiste 2.2%, Muslim 1.6%, Kimbanguiste 1.5%, other 8.1%, none 11.3%.


King Leopold oppressed the Congo for its abundance of natural rubber, which was becoming a very value commodity with the invention of rubber tires for bicycles and automobiles
People were forced to working in fields, and if they were acting lazy (not living up to king Leopold's standards) they were whipped and sometimes killed. Children's hands were severed if their work in the rubber fields was deemed "unsatisfactory"
1965-1997 Mobutu in power
Joseph Desire Mobutu is in power and renames the country Zaire. He transferred massive amounts of resources to himself an accumulated a personal fortune worth an estimated $4 billion.
1997-2003 After Mobutu
Zaire is renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Civil war breaks out which draws neighboring countries into the fight. This is considered Africa's first world war.
2003-2012 The eastern conflicts persist

1885-1908 the Congo free state was in the control of king Leopold II of Belgium.
King Leopold presented himself as a philanthropist with the sole intention of bringing Christianity to the african natives. He sent Henry Morton Stanley to explore the Congo setting up trading posts and convincing the local chiefs (almost all of them illiterate) to sign treaties with King Leopold. These treaties gave king Leopold control over the Congo and allowed him to take the position of the colonies leader.


Today the Congo has been facing many challenges. It remains as one of the poorest countries of the world. 50% of the Congo’s population is living below the poverty line. The corruption level of the Congo is at its all-time high, just like many other African countries. The disproportion of wealth is a result of reoccurring conflicts. There are deadly diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness, typhoid fever, and cholera. Most of the rulers and dictators of the Congo become quite violent and hold an iron fist over their colonies because of what happened to them. People continue to live with the fear of wars. The Congo has not done much to resolve its problems and issues. Non-government organizations (NGOs) around the world are trying to help.
Colonialism did not benefit the Congo very much. Although, there has been some benefits, such as the railroads, ports, and mines that were built. Overall, imperialism had very negative impacts. Colonialism did contribute to the challenges and problems the Congo is facing today. Three to 22 million people died when ruled by Belgium. There have been reoccurring conflicts since the Congo gained independence in 1960.


There was a sudden rise of political parties lead by educated Congolese elites. They gave the Congolese a voice by creating a representation of what they wanted the Congo to eventually become. They pushed for the immediate independence from Belgium. The political parties gained power but only the people that had been protesting the Belgian rule in their own way. During the 1950s, Belgian administration of the Congo actually began to lose control over the local administrators who had control over this territory as they were cluttered with paperwork trying to reduce the number of problematic events. Change began to accelerate after the riots in Leopoldville on January 4 1959. Thirty four Africans were killed in the riots after members of ABAKO were not allowed to assemble by the Belgian administration. The Congolese people refused to stand at attention before the Belgian administrator. There was a change that prepared the Congolese for political parties that were to channel and organize their new found courage. The Congo finally became independent in may of 1959. It took many years for the Congo to finally gain independence.

Books:
Perry-Globa, Pamela. Perspectives on Globalization. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford UP, 2007. Print.

Internet Resources:
"Belgian Imperialism in the Congo." : Impact of Imperialism on Peoples' Lives. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
"Belgian Imperialism in the Congo." : Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
"Congolese Win Independence from the Belgian Empire, 1959-60." Congolese Win Independence from the Belgian Empire, 1959-60. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
"THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO." THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
"Democratic Republic of Congo Profile - Timeline - BBC News." BBC News. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
"History of the Belgian Congo: Imperialism, Genocide & Atrocities - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com." Study.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
"Leopold II | King of Belgium." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
"Life Under Imperialist Power." Imperialism of Democratic Republic of the Congo. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
"Major Problems Facing DR Congo Today." Major Problems Facing DR Congo Today. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
"Washington State University." Fall 2014 After Imperialism The Economy of the Congo Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
http://www.indexmundi.com/democratic_republic_of_the_congo/debt_external.html
http://www.everyculture.com/Bo-Co/Republic-of-Congo.html
http://money.cnn.com/gallery/news/economy/2012/08/07/worlds-worst-economies/2.html
http://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/profile/country/cog/
http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Africa/Congo-Democratic-Republic-of-The-POVERTY-AND-WEALTH.html


Motivation:
Leopold sent an armies to march into a villages and hold the women hostage, forcing the men to run into the forest and gather rubber. As the price of rubber soared men had to work harder in order to meet the increased quotas


Under King Leopold's rule there were virtually no laws protecting the Congolese people and their land. Due to the fact that there was little to no government control the people of the Congo were subject to kidnapping, mutilation, robbery, and murder.
The native people were forced to work as miners, rubber-tappers, woodcutters, and railway builders for European interests
The Congo Free State exported less than 250 tons of rubber in 1892, compared to more than 1500 tons in 1897


In 1903 Roger Casement traveled to the Congo to document the abuse taking place. He finds villages depopulated, people terrified, gruesome tales of death and torture, ad many children missing limbs. When his report caused a sensation when it was published in Britian and helped to open peoples eyes to the violence taking place in the Congo.
Images:
[Untitled photograph of Henry Morton Stanley]. Retrieved November 26, 2015, from http://www.nndb.com/people/284/000092008/henry-morton-stanley-2-sized.jpg

[Photograph of Leopold II of Belgium]. Retrieved November 26, 2015, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/39/Leopold_ii_garter_knight.jpg

[Photograph of A man on a Minerva motorized bicycle in Australia]. Retrieved November 26, 2015, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Man_wearing_cap_%26_suit_on_motorised_pushbike,_Mt_Buffalo_Vic,_Alice_Manfield.jpg

[Photograph of tapping tree]. Retrieved November 26, 2015, from http://www.cis.yale.edu/gsp/colonial/images/belgian_congo/tapping_tree.jpg

[Photograph of Diamonds: the stolen resources of the Congo]. Retrieved November 26, 2015, from http://uhurunews.com/imagecache/http:/racismandnationalconsciousnessnews.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/congo-minerals-diamonds-imperialism1_jpg-CONVERT-resize=400.jpg

[Photograph of Mutilated Children From Congo]. Retrieved November 26, 2015, from http://www.newsofrwanda.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Kabila-gives-Congo%E2%80%99s-fortune-to-the-dead-and-starves-the-living.jpg

[The Force Publique in German East Africa during World War One]. Retrieved November 26, 2015, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Congo_belge_campagne_1918.jpg

[Photograph of Soldiers in the Belgium Congo]. Retrieved November 27, 2015, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e4/Soldiers_in_the_Belgium_Congo_-_NARA_-_197079.jpg

[Illustration of big leafless tree]. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://previews.123rf.com/images/katerinamk/katerinamk1108/katerinamk110800032/10439562-illustration-of-big-leafless-tree-Stock-Vector-tree-root-bare.jpg

[Map of Democratic Republic of the Congo in Africa]. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo_in_Africa_(-mini_map_-rivers).svg/1084px-Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo_in_Africa_(-mini_map_-rivers).svg.png

[Photograph of President Mobutu]. Retrieved November 27, 2015, from http://www.cachecoins.org/mobutu.jpg

[Untitled Photograph of soldiers]. Retrieved November 27, 2015, from https://www.mtholyoke.edu/~hargr22b/classweb/worldpolitics/images/nine665.jpg

[Untitled Photograph of Congolese sign]. Retrieved November 27, 2015, from http://www.socialistworld.net/img/article/2010-12-20Grafik8769318213979296796.jpg

[Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo]. Retrieved November 27, 2015, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg

1. A democratic government was established after the Congo gained independence. 2. After independence the government has been very unstable. Even after they had independence there was numerous wars and the Congo is still one of the poorest countries in the world. 3. Since independence there have been many wars and the government has been very unstable. After the Congo broke free of the belgian government lieutenant general Mobutu gained control over the Congo and declared himself president for five years. He embarked on a campaign of cultural awareness. It still remains a democratic society. The Congo tries to promote the personal freedoms of the people there but because of its badgered past they are slowly starting to give the people more freedoms.

The Congo is viewed as a developing country this would be due to the constant suffering of conflict and human rights abuse. Even though the country's rich in diamonds,copper, and metals the post events still play a role in the country's undeveloped state. It currently lacks a middle class resulting in a large gap between the wealthy who live in the city and the poor who remain in poverty. People often make a living through working in agriculture, industries and services such as petroleum extraction, sugar milling, palm oil, soap, and cigarette making. The average income per person is $231.00 while working in one of these occupations.

The country is currently in $6.874 billion in debt, evidently displaying the country's lack of wealth. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is currently $35.92 billion. Even though this under developed country is deeply in debt, they have many exports that consist of petroleum, passenger,cargo and special purpose ships, and refined copper. As well as imports such as passenger,cargo and special purpose ships, sea vessels, tug boats and refined petroleum. This items would not be available without the agriculture consisting of coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, cotton, cocoa, quinine, manioc, bananas, plantains, peanuts, root crops, corn, fruits and wood. There are also many manufactured products such as mineral processing, metal products, processed foods and beverages, timber,cement, consumer products such as textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes and mining items like copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, zinc, tin and tungsten.




The ABAKO group was a critical part to the gaining of independence in the Congo. ABAKO participated in an alliance that were committed to the demand for immediate independence and a federal state structure.

The decolonization process of the Congo resulted in Cold War confrontations between the United States and the Soviet Union over newly independent non aligned nations.

The Congo finally gained independence June 30, 1960.

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