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Copy of SUMMARIZING IN DEPTH (2015)

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Zak Watson

on 8 September 2016

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Transcript of Copy of SUMMARIZING IN DEPTH (2015)

Summary in Depth
Why Summarize?
Better Understand Larger Conversation
Get you thinking in new ways (change analysis/viewpoint/practice etc)

Prove you got it
Set up your argument


Bottom Line: Summaries Vary Based on Purpose
In ______("article name")___, Full Name of Author ______________________(your über so what, using good connecting/proving words)_______________________. Last Name adds that ____So What____. Additionally, (s)he points out that ______so what___.S/He warns, however, that ____________so what________. S/he adds that ____interesting quotation—just the thought provoking parts,” basing this on ___________ your sentence, using good connecting/proving words________. Ultimately, Last Name __desire word__ to_change/rewrite/re something____ideas about _____general word.


connecting/proving words: “argues” “connects” “demonstrates” “contrasts” “because” “in order to” “therefore”



Well Chosen Quotations
Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.

Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. Generally this is something you do to increase your own understanding

Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. This helps your understanding and can be used to report ideas in a paper (it still needs to be cited!!)
(Purdue OWL)
Why use quotations?

Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing
Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing
Give examples of several points of view on a subject
Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with
Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original
Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own
Expand the breadth or depth of your writing

Major problem: assuming the quotations speak for themselves
Orphan Quotations: they’ve been taken away from their contexts, and need to be integrated into their new surroundings
Make a “quotation sandwich”
Lead-in claim: explain who is speaking and sets up the quote
Follow up explain why it’s important and what you take it to say, or have to say about it.
Accurately reflect the spirit of the passage
Not “Bordo states…” but “Bordo is alarmed that..”
INTRODUCING QUOTATIONS
¾ X states, “__________.”
¾ As the prominent philosopher X puts it, “__________.”
¾ According to X, “__________.” ¾ X herself writes, “__________.”
¾ In his book, __________, X maintains that “__________.”
¾ In X’s view, “__________.”
¾ X agrees/disagrees when she writes, “__________.”
¾ X complicates matters further when he writes, “__________.”
EXPLAINING QUOTATIONS
¾ Basically, X is saying __________.
¾ In other words, X believes __________.
¾ In making this comment, X argues that __________.
¾ X is insisting that __________.
¾ X’s point is that __________.
¾ The essence of X’s argument is that __________.
step 1
step 2
step 3
Ultimately, Lepore
wants
to reassess ideas about the values of
business planning
.
desire words: "changes," "wants," "tries," "seeks," "redefines," "re-orders" "re-"

Why does [PARTICULAR ASPECT] surface in [PARTICULAR WAY]? (order/causation/
analysis)

How does [PARTICULAR ELEMENT] modify [PARTICULAR PRACTICE/ANALYSIS/ UNDERSTANDING]?

To what extent does [ELEMENT 1] replace/change [ELEMENT B]? (order/causation/
analysis)
How does an understanding of the history of disruption, and an analysis of its differing morality in business and educational settings modify the understanding and perhaps practice of disruption?
By focusing on the varieties of publications, Gopnik changes our understanding of the different forms of satire
The emphasis on nationalities changes our analysis of satire by suggesting we pay attention to where it comes from
The lists of names changes our practice by suggesting that we pay attention to the makers of satire
the collation of scandal and death changes our analysis by suggesting there is a question of if/how the practice can continue
The French tradition changes our analysis by suggesting that it has a different focus than other countries
Charlie Hebdo does not fit into satires such as teh Onion and New Yorker which changes our analysis of the audience expectations about satire
The contrast between nobility and ignobility changes our analysis of how we should take the point of satire by suggesting we should not make the cartoonists into martyrs or high minded but rather as committed to mockery and nothing being sacred
The anomalous power of the Charlie Hebdo cartoons changes our assumption by suggesting that, contrary to popular belief, images can still enrage.

Weaker Version of A Summary:
I
n Satire Lives, by Adam Gopnik he talks about how Charlie Hebdo shows why satire can be misunderstood
. T
here is a long tradition of French satire.

Charlie Hebdo
does not fit into satires such as
The Onion
and
The New Yorker
.
He warns, however, that we should changes our analysis of how we should take the point of satire.
He adds that in the French traditions this has rested on images which "are handmade, the living sign of an hornery human intention, rearing up against piety."

Ultimately Gopnik redefines satire.
Stronger Version of a Satire

I
n "Satire Lives," Adam Gopnik contrasts the French tradition and modes of publications of satire in order to suggest we understand the mission of
Charlie Hebdo
as one that is committed to ignobility and mockery while demonstrating the still current power of the image
.
Gopnik adds that the French tradition changes our analysis by suggesting that it has a different focus than other countries
.
Additionally, he points out that
Charlie Hebdo
does not fit into satires such as
The Onion
and
The New Yorker,
which changes our analysis of the audience expectations about satire.

He warns, however, that the contrast between nobility and ignobility changes our analysis of how we should take the point of satire by suggesting we should not make the cartoonists into martyrs or high minded but rather as committed to mockery and nothing being sacred.

He adds that in the French traditions this has rested on images which "are handmade, the living sign of an hornery human intention, rearing up against piety," basing this on a claim that
Charlie Hebdo's
images made fun of every religious and political idea in France.
Ultimately Gopnik redefines the contexts within which Charlie Hebdo’s cartoonists worked and should be understood.
For your summaries:

Make sure you balance So Whats and Collations (the Whhhat and the Whhhyyyy)

Making it clear who said what

Mega so what: summarize your summary!

So What
Thus the practice of business was changed by focusing management on planning for the unexpected rather than continuing to do what had worked.
Application
The binary between disruption and traditional management in Lepores article reveals a contrast between ideas. She suggests that management had been understood as continuing good ideas, but became understood as being ready for the unexpected. The value of planning and identifying good practice disappeared.

Data Collation

The encounter should be understood as a list of the questions the so what answers: why did this author write the article? To develop this write a list of what question each so what answers—your questions may take the form of:


Why does [PARTICULAR ASPECT] surface in [PARTICULAR WAY]? (order/causation/
analysis)

How does [PARTICULAR ELEMENT] modify [PARTICULAR PRACTICE/ANALYSIS/ UNDERSTANDING]?

To what extent does [ELEMENT 1] replace/change [ELEMENT B]? (order/causation/
analysis)
So What
The emphasis on speed with te emphasis on terror and panic changes our understanding of why this theory came into being: it is a response to a fast paced time in which doing what works will not address changes in other aspects of world, which is seen as ruleless and full of threat
Application
The emphasis on panic and disorder in Jill Lepore's "The Disruption model reveals a surprising anomaly. While Lepore suggests that the idea of innovation had become the guiding way of doing business in the 1990s, she points out that recent developments may make this model less useful. Rather than leading to innovation and creating successful companies, disruption instead may be "devastating" to companies due to new political and technological factors.




Data Collation

Anomaly:
fear, panic, devastation, terrorism
Binary : failure vs success
Collation: speed, change, rapid
So What
This pattern changes our analysis by suggesting that disruption does not actually happen often in companies: rather, companies find ways to retain their old practices and combine them with the new. .
Application
The emphasis on ways in which what seems to be new i actually connected to past practices in Lepore's article reveals a contrast with the idea that theories of disruption can use the past to predict future. Lepore shows taht what sems to be a pattern of disruption so the past is left behind can actually be seen as strong compzanies making small changes and survising. Additionally, "new" companies are actually often formed by consolidating old companies.


Data Collation

Binary: Past vs future in disruption
collation: established, incremental, continuities, consolidation

Uber So What
Binary: tradition/decisions/management/good vs disruption/missed/ failure
there have been various ways to deal with change throughout history
So What
This emphasis on explanation of past events changes ourt understanding of the value of disruptive theory by suggesting it may be useful in saying why something happened, but not in helping make decisions abut what to do in future.
Application
The contrast between prediction and explanation reveals a contrast in ideas about what disruption does. While those who practice it claim that disruption can predict what will happen and thus shape business decisions, in actuality it can only retrospectively explain why certain businesses succeeded through failures, ignoring ones that don't fit the model.

Data Collation

prediction/future/action vs retropect/analyze/explain
history vs future

The emphasis on lack of examination and hand picked case studies of disruption changes our analysis by suggesting it is not a very well theorized idea; practice wise mayvbe we should not trust it much
So What
This emphasis on morality changes our analysis of the value of disruption by suggesting that even when it is successful in business it ignores key values of community and compassion and those who are trained in it still seek other models of behavior.
Application
The emphasis on morals reveals a connection of problems with disruption as a theory. While disruption values profit and outcomes, it ignores the moral dimension of actions.
In particular it encourages being ruthless and not thinking about larger communities. The emphasis on reading at the start and end of this article suggests that people seek out these moral values and form communities around them.

Data Collation

connection: morality, conscience, reading, values

So What: The anomaly of discussing education and journalism, particularly Harvard's founding, changes the practice of what disruption can be applied to. Even if it is valid with a business, other institutions, such as schools, require interaction and small numbers, meaning disruption should not be applied to them.
there have been various ways to deal with change throughout history
Thus the practice of business was changed by focusing management on planning for the unexpected rather than continuing to do what had worked.
The emphasis on speed with the emphasis on terror and panic changes our understanding of why this theory came into being: it is a response to a fast paced time in which doing what works will not address changes in other aspects of world, which is seen as ruleless and full of threat
The emphasis on lack of examination and hand picked case studies of disruption changes our analysis by suggesting it is not a very well theorized idea; practice wise maybe we should not trust it much
This pattern changes our analysis by suggesting that disruption does not actually happen often in companies: rather, companies find ways to retain their old practices and combine them with the new.
This emphasis on explanation of past events changes our understanding of the value of disruptive theory by suggesting it may be useful in saying why something happened, but not in helping make decisions about what to do in future.
The anomaly of discussing education and journalism, particularly Harvard's founding, changes the practice of what disruption can be applied to. Even if it is valid with a business, other institutions, such as schools, require interaction and small numbers, meaning disruption should not be applied to them.
This emphasis on morality changes our analysis of the value of disruption by suggesting that even when it is successful in business it ignores key values of community and compassion and those who are trained in it still seek other models of behavior
In "The Disruption Machine," Jill Lepore
demonstrates
that the "gospel" of disruption arose from a specific historical time of great uncertainty
in order to

argue that
it should not be used as a guide to making decisions: she
contrasts
its explanatory power to its predictive power and
questions
its lack of morality.
Lepore adds that
the practice of business was changed by focusing management on planning for the unexpected rather than continuing to do what had worked.
Additionally, she points out that
this emphasis on explanation of past events changes our understanding of the value of disruptive theory by suggesting it may be useful in saying why something happened, but not in helping make decisions about what to do in future.
She warns, however,
that the emphasis on lack of examination and hand picked case studies of disruption changes our analysis by suggesting it is not a very well theorized idea; practice wise maybe we should not trust it much.
She adds that the gospel of disruption suggests one should
“forget rules, obligations, your conscience, loyalty. a sense of the comonweal,”
basing this on a claim that e
ven when disruption is successful in business it ignores key values of community and compassion and those who are trained in it still seek other models of behavior.
In "The Disruption Machine," Jill Lepore
demonstrates that
the "gospel" of disruption arose from a specific historical time of great uncertainty,
but argues
that it should not be used as a guide to making decisions: she
contrasts i
ts explanatory power to its predictive power and
questions
its lack of morality.
Lepore adds that
the practice of business was changed by focusing management on planning for the unexpected rather than continuing to do what had worked.
Additionally, she points out that
this emphasis on explanation of past events changes our understanding of the value of disruptive theory by suggesting it may be useful in saying why something happened, but not in helping make decisions about what to do in future.
She warns, however, t
hat the emphasis on lack of examination and hand picked case studies of disruption changes our analysis by suggesting it is not a very well theorized idea; practice wise maybe we should not trust it much.
She adds that
the gospel of disruption suggests one should “forget rules, obligations, your conscience, loyalty. a sense of the comonweal,”
basing this on a claim
that even when disruption is successful in business it ignores key values of community and compassion and those who are trained in it still seek other models of behavior.
Ultimately
, Lepore wants to r
eassess
ideas about the values of business planning.
How to Summarize
1302:Booth So Whats to revise for 2/1

-- Booth's emphasis on the different processes of the reader and the author changes our assumptions by focusing on the community between readers and writers: he suggests that the reader not only has a very active role in sorting through meanings, but also has to do so in way that is sensitive to what the reader percieves as the author's intentions, while the author must put trust in the reader catching such intentions and sharing enough values to interpret it thusly. (Dr Mann’s. Maybe a model as you revise?)

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