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Explain The Role That Culture Plays In The Formation And Maintenance Of Relationships
Transcript of Explain The Role That Culture Plays In The Formation And Maintenance Of Relationships
Formation Of Relationships
According to Duck (1999), individualistic cultures assume that it is the spouse who choose their partners, however, in reality, it could have been arranged by social position, religion, wealth, opportunities, and class.
Are Arranged Marriages Happier?
Xiohe and Whyte (1990)
Xuohe and Whyte investigated the hypothesis from arranged marriages that, "love matches start out hot and grow cold, while arranged marriages start out cold and grow hot".
Arranged marriages in India
Maintenance Of Relationships
A large proportion of marriages in the Western world are getting divorced, in some counytries it can be up to 50%. However, in some other cultures, such as India and china, divorce is non-existence or rare.
Hogg and Vaughn (1998)
According to Hogg and Vaughn, despite the marriages in the West, there is one general agreement psychologists have finalized about a relationship. It is valid to say that relationships that survive over time is because the partners tend to adapt and change with respect to one another. A relationship that involves friendship, caring, respect and mutual sharing of experiences could result in long-lasting, powerful bonding relationships. This would be considered an "ideal" of the Western "love marriage".
Moghaddam et al (1993)
Moghddam argued that in Western cultures, interpersonal relationships tend to be individualistic, voluntary, and temporary.
In collectivist cultures, social-networks plays a big role, as it motivates marriage. Families, usually the elders, plays an active and often decisive role when choosing a partner for the youngs to marry.
Levine et al. (1995)
In this study, college students that were from a collectivist/individualistic society were asked if they would marry someone who had all the qualities they desired, even if they did not love them.
In older days, arranged marriage in India was a very popular concept. And in today's world the majority of India's population still carries on the same tradition of arrange marriages made by their parents with or without the consent of the boy or girl involved.
Fiske (2004) suggests that arrange marriages usually last longer than romantic marriages. Traditional marriages, such as those in collectivist societies is like a contract between families. This involves economic and social engagements, that enables a sense of powerful bondings between the families and makes the option of divorce seem impossible. This could also be one of the reasons for stability of marriages.
Gupta and Singh (1982)
This study involved the interviewing of 50 Indian couples who had married because of love and who were arranged to be married.
Yelsma and Athappily (1988)
This study compared 28 Indian couples in arranged marriages, 25 Indian couples in love marriages, and 31 American couples. Results were that couples who were involved in an arrange marriage scored higher on marital satisfaction compared to those who married out of love.
In this study, a sample of 586 married women residing in Sichuan province of China participated. The data showed that the role of parents in marriages were declined and young people were more involved in matchmaking.
Surprisingly, researchers have found out that those who were married out of love were happier than those who were in an arranged marriage. The period of marriage did not matter.
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
By: Pimpaka (Nancy) Thongrat
However, as for non-western cultures, interpersonal relationships tend to be collectivist, involuntary (i.e arranged marriages), and permanent.
Bellur (1995), states that love should be discovered after marriage. Moreover, arranged marriages still exist in today's world and modifications can be seen in some cultures.
Results (Individualistic Countries):
USA = 4% said yes
Australia = 5% said yes
UK = 8% said yes
Results (Collectivist Countries):
India = 49% said yes
Pakistan = 51% said yes
Westerners viewed this as a "non-existence romantic marriage" for those who resided in a collectivist country. However, modifications have been made as those who are educated tend to seek consent from their daughters and sons about the choice of preffered partners.
In the past, young Indians trusted their parents in finding their suitable life partner. Surprisingly, a huge percentage of arranged marriage seemed to work out, and even if it did not work out, very few knew about the ending of the marriage.
Couples who were married because they were in love reported that their feelings of love for their partner decreased after a few years of marriage. As for those who had an arranged marriage reported higher levels of love.
Researchers concluded that their data may not be enough to support the idea that arranged marriages are happier than love marriages (cannot generalize from a few selected married couple).