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The Iron Horse 1800-1860

Railroads
by

Elaina Joseph

on 17 October 2012

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Transcript of The Iron Horse 1800-1860

The Iron Horse
1800-1860 Railroad Developement and Locomotives Imporant People &
Railroad Companies The Workers Safety Essay Questions
1. The text authors state that "the most significant contribution to the development of such an (continental) economy proved to be the railroad.", Do you agree with this Why? Justify your answer.
2. Compare railroads to other modes of transportation such as highways/roads , steamboats, and canals. Compare safety ,efficiency, travel time , and constructionstatement?. Pros and Cons compared to Other Forms of Transportation Pros

Higher rail traffic volume, which takes away a significant amount of road traffic, both freight as well as passenger.
Rail transport is an energy-efficient but capital-intensive, means of mechanized land transport. The tracks provide smooth and hard surfaces on which the wheels of the train can roll with a minimum of friction.
Railways have also been shown to contribute to social vibrancy and economic competitiveness.
it was cheaper than canals to construct, and not frozen over in the winter
Able to go almost anywhere, even through the Allegheny barrier, it defied terrain and weather Cons

Displacement of people who live near the railway, because of condemnation of their land (taking away their backyard to make room for the new line).
Rail also has to be very linear, flat and straight. This causes significant increases in building costs (digging tunnels, grading, etc.). Effects of the Railroad 1) William Jessup

By 1776, iron had replaced the wood in the rails and wheels on the carts. Wagonways evolved into Tramways and spread though out Europe. Horses still provided all the pulling power.
In 1789, Englishman, William Jessup designed the first wagons with flanged wheels. The flange was a groove that allowed the wheels to better grip the rail, this was an important design that carried over to later locomotives.

2) Samuel Homfray - Richard Trevithick

The invention of the steam engine was critical to the invention of the modern railroad and trains.
In 1803, a man named Samuel Homfray decided to fund the development of a steam-powered vehicle to replace the horse-drawn carts on the tramways.
Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) built that vehicle, the first steam engine tramway locomotive. The first locomotive in the world was built by Richard Trevithick in 1804.

3) Julius Griffiths

In 1821, Englishman, Julius Griffiths was the first person to patent a passenger road locomotive. 4) Stockton & Darlington Railroad Company
5) George Stephenson

In September, 1825, the Stockton & Darlington Railroad Company began as the first railroad to carry both goods and passengers on regular schedules using locomotives designed by English inventor, George Stephenson.
Stephenson's locomotive pulled six loaded coal cars and 21 passenger cars with 450 passengers over 9 miles in about one hour.
George Stephenson is considered to be the inventor of the first steam locomotive engine for railways. 6) Colonel John Stevens

Colonel John Stevens is considered to be the father of American railroads.
In 1826 Stevens demonstrated the feasibility of steam locomotion on a circular experimental track constructed on his estate in Hoboken, New Jersey, three years before George Stephenson perfected a practical steam locomotive in England.
The first railroad charter in North America was granted to John Stevens in 1815. Grants to others followed, and work soon began on the first operational railroads.

7) George Pullman - The Pullman Sleeping Car http://www.history.com/topics/railroad/videos#modern-marvels-evolution-of-railroads Irish
•Irish came to America and needed jobs
•Because of the dangerous conditions building railroads was set aside for the Irish
•If they were injured they would be fired and would not receive compensation
•If they died their families wouldn’t receive compensation and often times would be buried beside the tracks
•They died from diseases and accidents relating to their work
•They worked 6 days a week all day long
•The Irish and the blacks shared a mutual hatred for eachother Chinese
•Worked on building the trans-continiental railroad
•Used techniques they brought over from China to lay tracks
•They were mainly employed in the late 1800s because of laws that did not allow Chinese to immigrate to the US Effects:
• Negative:
Conflict over land with Indians
Indians started wars over the land conflicts
Settlers came along with the railroads
Trains often hit buffalo which was an important food source for Indians Effects
Positives:
Easier to transport goods
Easier to move west
Gave supplies to the west
During the civil war soldiers and supplies could be moved around easier
Faster way to travel
More ways for people to trade with
Connected the people better, for example, mail and news were faster
gave a safer form of travel to use African Americans
The entire southern railroad network that was built during the slavery era was built almost exclusively by both men and women slaves
Some of the railroads owned slaves, other railroads hired or rented slaves from slave owners
After the Civil War
In the south, Railroads were the best alternative to escaping two of the worst fates for free African Americans, sharecropping, or domestic service
The railroads were the most important industry that blacks ever worked in Some Accidents Some Accidents Artist rendition of The Great Train Wreck of 1856 Angola Horror ,1967 Safety 1831
June 17, nr. Charleston, S.C.: The Best Friend of Charleston, injuring the fireman and the engineer.

1833
Nov. 8, nr. Heightstown, N.J.: world's first train wreck and first passenger fatalities recorded. A 24-passenger Camden & Amboy train derailed due to a broken axle, killing 2 passengers and injuring all others. Former president John Quincy Adams and Cornelius Vanderbilt, who later made a fortune in railroads, were aboard.

1853
May 6, Norwalk, Conn.: New Haven Railroad train ran through an open drawbridge and plunged into the Norwalk River. 46 passengers were crushed to death or drowned. This was the first major drawbridge accident.

1856
July 17, Camp Hill, nr. Ft. Washington, Pa.: 2 Northern Penn trains crashed head-on. Approximately 50–60 people died, mostly children on their way to a Sunday school picnic. Also known as The Great Train Wreck of 1856.
-Other Causes of Tragedy

-Gas tanks were kept under the cars for lighting so when wrecks occurred there was a danger of explosion or fire

-Cars for passenger trains were made of wood with metal under frames
-cars shattered easily on collision and people could be killed or seriously injured
-coal burning stoves were used and would tip over in a wreck easily setting the wooden cars ablaze.

-flying sparks from their smokestacks could set fire to nearby haystacks ,crops ,forests and houses

-Bridges were often made of wood and were liable to collapse in the case of flood or storm which caused more accidents.

-Early signaling was based on time intervals of 5 or 10 minutes.
-Before the telegraph was invented there was no way of contacting the next dispatcher to check if the section was free.
-this caused many collisions

-Because of the different gauges "compromise" cars ,cars that could run on different gauges, were used but they often derailed

-Early railroads used strap-iron rails, thin strips of cast iron fixed onto wooden rails.
-these rails were too fragile to carry heavy loads, and sometimes separated from the wooden base and speared into the floor of the carriages above, creating what was referred to as a "snake head" which caused more accidents

-Early steam locomotives were subject to exploding usually due to the boiler The early railroad was a safe way of land transportation compared to other forms of transportation at the time but it was very unsafe for both workers and passengers. Serious railroad accidents had been relatively rare until the 1850's but there were many minor accidents. Derailments and collisions were very common.

-For Workers accidents were frequent
- Building the railroad was dangerous task but opperating it was also.
-Brakes were horrible
-for freight cars brakemen were used to put the brake wheels on from the roof of the car
-for passenger cars, brakemen would go from car to car turning on the handbrakes but trains would still go a long distance before coming to a stop

-Link and Pin Coupler
-cause many deaths for brakemen by crushing them in between cars
-couplers could sever easily and train cars would collide with each other American Railroads are derived from the development of railways by Great Britain
the first railroads, which used horse-drawn wagons and wooden rails, were used to haul minerals
The first documented railroad in America was the Leiper Railroad,1810-1828
designed and built by merchant Thomas Leiper
The first permanent horse drawn commercial railroad was The Granite Railway ,1826 in Massachusetts Locomotives
With the creation of the steam engine, a few decades later came the steam locomotive
The world's first steam locomotive was created in 1804
A few years later the steam locomotive was put to public use
The English inventor ,George Stephenson, made the first Steam Locomotive for public use in 1825
It was called Locomotion No. 1 and it was used in England. Locomotives
George Stephenson started the era of steam railroading
the use of steel steam locomotives was spreading through England
America was still using horse railways
-Hearing of the successful use of steam locomotives in England, The Delaware & Hudson Canal Company (Later the Delaware & Hudson Railway) sent one of their chief engineers ,Horatio Allen, to England in 1828
Allen returned with 4 locomotives, The Delaware, The Hudson, The America, and The Stourbridge Lion The Stourbridge Lion
The Stourbridge Lion was the first steam locomotive that was intended for public use to run in America in 1829
The locomotive was so named because it had a lion painted on the front of the boiler and it was built in the city of Stourbridge, England
It weighed eight tons and cost $2,915.00.
It arrived in Honesdale for its test run and crowds of people came to see it.
After two successful trials it was decided that the wooden rails could not handle continued use of the eight ton locomotive with the haulage of coal and The Stourbridge Lion was put away. 10) The South Carolina Canal & Railroad Company
by 1830 decided to build a 137 mile railroad from Charleston ,SC to Hamburg ,SC
At that time it was the longest railroad in the world
Placed an order with the West Point Foundry in New York for a steam locomotive
It arrived in October and on Christmas Day ,1830 it went into regular service and became the first American built locomotive to haul passenger cars on a public railroad.
The locomotive was named the Best Friend of Charleston
Six months later, the Best Friend of Charleston's boiler exploded and the locomotive was destroyed
Afterwards many owners of canal companies and stagecoach lines spread anti-railroad propaganda because they were afraid that the iron horse would put them out of business
As a result railword workers became unwelcome in some areas
Yet railroads kept building on 8) The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company
Chartered in 1827
Wanted a railroad to run from Baltimore to the Ohio River Valley but by 1830 only had 13 miles of track and cars were still horse drawn
Built to compete with the Erie Canal
George Stephenson said that no steam locomotive could be built "to go around the sharp curves on the B & O line
An inventor ,Peter Cooper, disagreed and created a locomotive that could stay on the curving and twisting rails of the line
9) Tom Thumb

Designed and built by Peter Cooper in 1830, the Tom Thumb was the first American-built steam locomotive to be operated on a common-carrier railroad. Tom Thumb

locomotive built by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company to run on the curved and twisting rails of the B & O line
called Tom Thumb
the first American-built steam locomotive to be operated on a common-carrier railroad
it one-horsepower and weighed 1 ton
When it made its debut, it was made fun of for its small size and how it looked like a toy
On August of 1830 Tom Thumb had it's first trial run and it chugged along 7 miles of track in 45 minutes
officials saw what steam power could do and decided to build more locomotives Railroads
News of the success of the first steam trains in Baltimore and Charleston spread quickly
by 1835 there were more than 200 railroad lines in the planning or construction stages
Between 1820-1830 only 40 miles of track had been built so far
from 1830 to 1840 there was 2,808 miles of operating railways
by 1850 there was 9,022 miles of track
by 1860 31,246 miles of iron rails was in existence
Early tracks were made of wood but then changed to wood covered in thin cast iron strips which then changed to wrought iron rails Obstacles

During the early years of railroads most of the rails were still disconnected and were most concentrated in the Northeast with the rest scattered in the Southeast and Midwest
The tracks gauges throughout the country varied greatly they ranged from the standard 4 foot 8 1/2 in. to 6 feet.
this meant frequent changes of trains for passengers
to go from Philly to Charleston in 1860 you needed to make 7 train changes
Arrivals and Departures were conjectural
little government oversight during these early years so public suffered from some unsafe practices
different railroad companies were unwilling to interchange traffic with another because of the greed of owners
Although there were some obstacles for early railroads, they were still fast, reliable ,and cheaper than canals to construct
And railroads could cut the travel time between cities by steamboats in half Track layers
Railroad construction jobs tended to go to the nationalities who were looked down upon
Most workers were immigrants or African Americans Locomotive Workers/Crew
Crews consisted of at least two people, engineer and fireman,but some crews consisted of four or more people
Positions
The Hostler
was responsible for getting the locomotive ready to go
The Engineer
managed the locomotive and the locomotive crew
ensured that the locomotive was fit to go, fueled efficiently and that its braking, acceleration and speed were efficient
did not control the movement of the train (when it started and stopped) Positions (continued)
The Fireman
managed the fire, the fuel and the water to make sure that the locomotive had the right power to pull the load
shoveled coal into an extremely hot furnace
The Brakeman
applied each car's brake
had to walk across the roofs of each car turning the brake wheel to slow the car
job was eliminated with the invention of the air brake
The Conductor
main duty was to ensure the happiness of passengers
collected the tickets to ensure everyone had paid for the ride
controlled when train started and stopped
The Dispatcher and Telegragh Operator/Agent
position didn't come until after the invention of the telegraph
stationed at depots along the railroad line to receive train orders from a dispatcher and reported back on train movements
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