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Rizal's Homecoming and Second Travel

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Transcript of Rizal's Homecoming and Second Travel

Dr. Jose Rizal
Homecoming and Second Trip
After five years of his memorable sojourn in Europe, Rizal returned to the Philippines.

1.Paciano Mercado
2. Silvestre Ubaldo
3. Jose Ma. Cecilio (Chenggoy)


Decision to return home
His mother’s eyes
Oppression by Spanish tyrants.
Noli Me Tangere and other writings
Leonor Rivera

Rizal was determined to come back to the Philippines for the following reasons:
Merseilles - Djemnah
In Saigon (Ho Chi Minh), Vietnam - Haiphong
August 6, 1887, Rizal arrived in Manila and took two more days to reach Calamba
Rizal arrives in Manila
Findings submitted by Rizal
The hacienda of the Dominican Order comprised the whole town of Calamba.
The profits of the Dominican Order continually increased
The hacienda owner never contributed anything to the town
Tenants were dispossessed of ands for flimsy reasons
High rates of interest were charged the tenants
When the rentals could not be paid, the hacienda management imposed harsh consequences

Friars Reaction

The friars exerted pressure to Malacañang to eliminate Rizal.
Gov. Gen refused
Threats to Rizal, his family, friends

Rizal's Second Travel Abroad
His presence in Calamba was jeopardizing the safety and happiness of his family and friends.
Most of his family members received death threats because of him
February 3, 1888, Rizal -
Zafiro

Rizal in Hong Kong
Stop over in Amoy (Xiamen)
February 8, 1888, Rizal arrived in Hong Kong
Jose Ma. Basa and Bablino Mauricio
He stayed in the Victoria Hotel
Jose Sainz de Varanda
Letter to Blumentritt

Rizal in Hong Kong
Rizal in Hong Kong
Engaged in cultural activities like studying Chinese language, life experiences, drama, values and customs.
He was able to observe:
1. Celebration of Chinese New Year
2. Chinese Theater
3. Chinese lauriat parties
4. Religious groups in Hong Kong
5. Cemeteries in Hong Kong
Rizal in Macau
Rizal sailed to Macau -
Kiu-Kang
on February 18, 1888.
He stayed with Don Juan Francisco Lecaros
February 22, 1888, Rizal sailed back to Hong Kong.
Rizal In Japan
Rizal -
Oceanic
arrived in Yokohama, Japan on February 28, 1888
Yokohama Grand Hotel
He was supposed to stay at the Tokyo Hotel but gave in to the invitation of Mr. Juan Perez Caballero, the secretary of the Spanish Legation

Rizal in Japan

Rizal was very interested in the Japanese culture, language, art, and music
Rizal was able to learn:
- Nipponggo
- Kabuki (Japanese Drama)
- Judo
Rizal's Disappointment in Japan
The Japanese Ricksha/ Rickshaw

Rizal's Romance in Japan
Rizal's romance with Seiko Usui or O-Sei-San
Rizal's Sayonara
Rizal was very troubled to leave Japan because of Seiko Usui but he had no choice but to leave
Rizal -
Belgic
, left Yokohama on February 22, 1888
Tetcho Suehiro
Rizal in the USA
Rizal -
Belgic
sailed for San Francisco California
When the ship arrived on April 28, 1888, the American health authorities did not permit the passengers to go down the ship
They reasoned that there was a Cholera Epidemic from the East and they needed to be quarantined

Rizal in the USA
After a week, Rizal and other first class passengers were allowed to exit the ship
Palace Hotel in San Francisco for 2 days
He traveled across the United States in order to reach the East coast and reach Europe
Rizal's Travel Around USA
Rizal's Impressions of America
Good:
1. The material progress of the country as shown in the great cities, huge farms, flurishing industries, and busy factories
2. The drive and energy of the American people
3. The natural beauty of the land
4. The high standard of living
5. The opportunities for better life offered to poor immigrants

Bad:
1. America is the land par excellence of freedom but only for the whites
Rizal in London
May 1888, March 1889
Reasons
1. English language
2. Morga’s “Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas”
3. Against the Spanish tyranny

Works done
1. Filipiniana studies
2. Morga’s book
3. La Solidaridad
4. Letter for the young women of Malolos
5. Gertrude Beckett

Rizal's Life in London
• Dr. Regidor - exile of 1872; practising lawyer in London
• #37, Chalcot Crescent, Primrose Hill with the Becketts
• Dr. Rost - librarian of Ministry and Foreign Affairs; called JR as “pearl of man”

News from Home
• Bad: Injustices committed by Spanish authorities on the Filipino people and on JR’s family

• Good: Rev. Garcia’s (Canon of Manila Cathedral) defense of Noli against the attack of friars
- Mariano Ponce
- JR’s letter to Fr. Garcia (January 7, 1891)


Annotating Morga’s Book
• Mexico in 1609
• JR’s letter to Blumentritt (September 17, 1888)
• 10 months for his historical studies (May 1888 – March 1889)
• JR’s letter to Mariano Ponce from Barcelona (October 12, 1888)



Short Visit to Paris and Spain
a. Paris - Bibliotheque Nationale

b. Spain - Madrid and Barcelona
- Philippine reforms
- Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Mariano Ponce


Christmas in London
• JR’s letter and a bust of Emperor August for Blumentritt
• A bust of Julius Caesar for Dr. Czepelak
• A book for JR from Mrs. Beckett

Rizal as a Leader of Filipinos in Europe
• Solaridad Association (December 31, 1888)
- Officers (P.146)
- Rizal as the Honorary President
- JR’s letter to the members of the association (January 28, 1889)
- JR’s advices (P. 146 – 147)


Rizal and the La Solidaridad Newspaper
Organ in the propaganda movement
February 15, 1889
Graciana Lopez Jaena
Aims: (P.147)
JR’s letter to Marcelo H. Del Pilar (February 17, 1889)


Romance with Gertrude Beckett
JR to forget Gettie:
1. Prometheus bound
2. The Triumph of Death Over Life
3. The Triumph of Science Over Death
4. Carving the heads of the Beckett sisters

UST and Rizal
The report of the faculty members from UST about the Noli states that the novel was:
-
Heretical, impious and scandalous


Fr. Salvador Font
– the head of the Permanent Commission of Censorship
- The group found that the novel contain
subversive ideas
against the Church and Spain
- Prohibition of the Book


Attackers of the Noli
Archbishop Pedro Payo

Dominican Archbishop of Manila
Sent a copy of the Noli to Fr. Gregorio Echevarria, Rector of the University of Santo Tomas to examine the novel.

Rizal in Paris
March 19, 1889, Rizal left London for Paris
Spring of 1889
- Universal Exposition – to open on May 6, 1889

• Ventura’s house (#45, Rue Maubeuge)
• Capitan Trinidad (former gobernadorcillo of Sta. Ana, Manila) and Jose Albert (refugee from Spanish tyranny; a young student from Manila)

Difficulty of Finding Quarters
Life in Paris
• Daily habits:
a. Reading room of Bibliotheque Nationale
b. Living Quarters
c. Gymnasium
d. Visiting his friends
e. Dine with friends during spare time
• Taveras (P. 154)
• June 24, 1889 - Godfather and chose the name of Juan Luna and Paz Pardo de Taveras’ baby girl
• JR’s letter to his family about his life in Paris (May 16, 1889) – (p.154-155)
• Another letter (September 21, 1889) – (P.155)

Rizal and Paris Exposition of 1889
• Eiffel Tower - 984 ft. high
- Alexander Eiffel
• Third French Republic - President Sadi Carnot
• International Art Competition
1. Rizal – No prize
2. Hidalgo – 2nd prize
3. Luna – 3rd prize
4. F. Pardo de Taveras – 3rd prize

Kidlat Club
• Members (P.155) & Meaning (P.156)
• A social society of a temporary nature
• JR’s letter to Blumentritt (March 19, 1889) – (P.156)


Indios Bravos
• Buffalo Bullshow - American Indians
• Judo


R.D.L.M. Society
1. Maria Basa (September 21, 1889)
2. Marcelo H. Del Pilar (November 4, 1889)
• Dr. Leoncio Lopez-Rizal - Redemption of the Malays
• Freemasonry
• Max Havelaar (Pseudonym of ED Dekkers Dutch author) by Multatuli, 1860
• Dr. Leoncio Lopez-Rizal (P.157)
• JR’s letter to Blumentritt in Hongkong (February 23, 1892)
- To be a leader of freedom. If not in the Philippines, in Borneo

Annotated Edition of Morga’s Book Published
• British Museum
• Garner Freres
• Blumentritt - Rizal’s two errors & Prologue
• Splendid piece of histography
• Why? (P. 158 – 159)
• Filipino’s civilization
• Historical heresies of the Spanish writers


Rizal as Historian
• British Museum (London) and Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris)
• Morga’s book
• Isabelo delos Reyes
• Foreign Languages
• Books read (P. 160-161)
• Books written (P. 161)

Comment on Morga’s Publication Date
• Paris, Libreria de Garnier Hermanos, 1890
• 1889, not 1890
• Blumentritt’s letter to Rizal (October 12, 1889)
• JR’s letter to Dr. Roxas (December 18, 1889)
• Mariano Ponce’s letter from Barcelona to Rizal (December 31, 1889)

The Philippines within a Century
• Article – Views on the Spanish colonization in the Philippines

The Indolence of the Filipinos
• Essay – Prestigious work of historical scholarship
• JR as the real scholar
• Decline in economic activities (P.136)
• Tropical Country (P.163)


International Association of Filipinologists
• Inaugural convention in the French Capital – August 1889
• First submitted to Blumentritt through a letter – January 14, 1889
• Aim: To study the Philippines from scientific and historical point of view
• Invited scholars
1. Dr. Reinhold Rost
2. Sir Henry Yule
3. Dr. Feodor Jagor
4. Dr. A. B. Meyer
5. Dr. H. Kern
6. Dr. Czepelak

Project for Filipino College in Hongkong
• Modern college
• Aim: (P.164)
• JR’s letter to Maria Basa
• Mr. Cunanan (Mexico, Pampanga)
• Exile in Dapitan
- School for boys
- Practice of pedagogical concepts

Por Telefono
• Fall, 1889
• Fr. Font
• Booklet form (Barcelona, 1889)
• Received printed copies from Mariano Ponce – JR’s letter from Paris (August 13, 1889)
• “Dimas-Alang”
• Witty satire which ridicules Fr. Font (Madrid) and the father provincial of San Agustin Convent (Manila)
• Prophetic insight – overseas telephonic conversations
• 1901 – First radio telegraph signals
- Marconi
- 12 years after the publication date



Christmas in Paris
• After New Year, JR went to London again
- Two reasons (P. 166)
• January 1890 - Back in Paris
- Epidemic of influenza in Europe was raging



Rizal in Belgium
January 28, 1890 Rizal left for Belgium
Accompanied by JOSE ALBERT
JOSE ALEJANDRO/Alejandrino (an engineering student).
- Pansit for two days
“38 Rue Philippe Champagne”
Suzane and Marie Jacoby.
2 Reasons that impelled him to leave Paris and transferred to Belgium:
1. Expensive living
2. Gay social life hampered his literary works especially the El Filibusterismo


NEW ORTHOGRAPHY OF TAGALOG LANGUAGE
Sobre la Nueva Ortografia de la lengua Tagala an article published in La Solidaridad
Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera
Rizal criticized his fellow Filipinos in Madrid for gambling
“Papa”
BAD NEWS ALSO CAME FROM HOME DURING HIS STAY IN BELGIUM
The Calamba agrarian trouble
Dominican suit agaianst the family of Rizal
Persecution and Deportation
Presentiments of death


*These letters depressed Rizal and planned to go home during these times he had his presentiments of Death.

Preparation to Go Home
Danger of going home
Graciano Lopez Jaena
Letter from Paciano
Supreme court of Spain
Marcelo H. del Pilar
“To My Muse”

Rizal in Madrid
Arrived in Madrid on the August of 1890.
Justice for his family
Asociacion Hispano-Filipina
Letters from Silvestre Ubaldo and Saturnina
Disappointment
Bluementritt


Panganiban’s death
Rizal – Del Pilar Rivalry
Rizalistas vs. Pilaristas
January 1, 1891
“Responsable” as leader of the Filipinos in Spain.
Rizal’s abdication of leadership.

Frugal Life in Ghent
July 5, 1891
Reasons:
- Cheap Printing
- Petite Suzanne
El Filibusterismo
Rizal's Second Novel; sequel of Noli Me Tangere
October 1997 - March 29, 1891
September 18, 1891 - Came off the press
NOLI ME TANGERE VS.
EL FILIBUSTERISMO
Noli Me Tangere
Romantic Novel
Work of the Heart
Feelings
- Freshness, Humor, Lightness, and Wit
64 Chapters
El Filibusterismo
Political Novel
Work of the mind
Thought:
- bitterness, hatred, pain, violence and sorrow
38 Chapters
Rizal's Return to Hong Kong
Reasons for leaving Europe:
1. Political Issue with Marcelo del Pilar
2. To be near the Philippines
He brought 600 copies of El Filibusterismo with him
Arrived on November 20, 1891
Resided at No. 5 D' Aguilar St., No. 2 Rednaxola Terrace
- also opened his own clinic there
Family Reunion
Christmas of 1891, Rizal reunited with his family in Hong Kong
One of the happiest Christmas' Rizal had
Ophthalmic Surgeon
with the help of Dr. Lorenzo P. Marquez
successfully operated his mother's left eye
The Borneo Colonization Project
went to Sandakan on March 7, 1892
Was back in Hong Kong by April 20
Decision to Return to the Philippines
Borneo Colonization Project
Liga Filipina
To prove Eduardo de Lete wrong
Sources:
- https//prezi.com/iyt8dajrim_z/copy-of-rizals-second-trip-abroad/
- Zaide, G. F., & Zaide, S. M. (2008). Jose Rizal: Life, works, and writings ofa genius, writer, scientist, and national hero (2nd ed.). Quezon City, Philippines: All-nations Publishing.
- Mañego, J. D. (2013). The 'Love-and-Hate' Relationship of Jose Rizal And Marcelo Del Pilar. Retrieved February 1, 2016, from http://ourhappyschool.com/history/love-and-hate-relationship-jose-rizal-and-marcelo-del-pilar
- Quirino, E. (n.d.). Leonor Rivera, A Hero’s Sweetheart. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from http://www.positivelyfilipino.com/magazine/leonor-rivera-a-heros-sweetheart
- De Viena, A., Cabrera, H., Atutubo, J., Samala, E., & De Vera, M. (2011). Jose Rizal: Social Reformer and Patriot. Manila, Philippines: Rex Book Store. P. 73.
In Calamba
Medical Clinic - Doctor Uliman
Doña Teodora
Paintings
Poems
Gymnasium
- Fencing and Shooting > Gambling and Cockfighting
Sad moments while Rizal was in Calamba
Leonor Rivera
Olimpia Mercado-Ubaldo
Agrarian Problem in Calamba
Investigation on the friar estates
Calamba Hacienda owned by the Dominican Order
Help from Jose Rizal
Rizal in Calamba
Governor-General Emilio Terrero
liberal minded Spaniard
Summoned Rizal to the Malacañang Palace
Jose Taviel de Andrade
young Spanish Lieutenant
knew Spanish, English, French
cultured and knew painting
HYMN TO LABOR
2nd Stanza
MEN:

As soon as the East is tinted with light
Forth to the fields to plow the loam!
Since it is work that sustains the man,
The motherland, family and the home.
Hard though the soil may prove to be
Implacable the sun above
For motherland, our wives and babes,
'Twill be easy with our love.
3rd Stanza
WIVES:

Courageously set out to work.
Your home is safe with a faithful wife
Implanting in her children, love
For wisdom, land, and virtuous life.
When nightfall brings us to our rest,
May smiling fortune guard our door;
But if cruel fate should harm her man,
The wife woul toil on as before.
5th Stanza
BOYS:

Teach us then the hardest tasks
For down thy trails we turn our feet
That when our country calls tomorrow
Thy purposes we may complete.
And may our elders say, who see us.
See! How worthy of their sires!
Ni incense can exalt our dead ones
Like a brave son who aspires!


Trip across the Atlantic
• New York to Liverpool
• Yoyo – a small wooden disc attached to a string from a finger; weapon for offense
• Adelphi Hotel (May 24, 1888)

Life in London
• Dr. Regidor - exile of 1872; practising lawyer in London
• #37, Chalcot Crescent, Primrose Hill with the Becketts
• Dr. Rost - librarian of Ministry and Foreign Affairs

First Article in La Solidaridad
Los Agricultores Filipinos (March 25, 1889)
Writings in London
• Fray Rodriguez’ unabated attack on his Noli
• La Vision del Fray Rodriguez - Satire depicting a spirited dialogue between St. Augustine and Fr. Rodriguez
1. His profound knowledge of religion
2. His biting satire
• JR’s letter to the young women of Malolos – February 22, 1889
- Marcelo H. del Pilar
- Main points (P. 149)
• Dr. Rost (Trubner’s Record) - Journal devoted to Asian studies
1. Specimens of Tagalog Folklore – May 1889
a. Proverbial sayings
b. Puzzles
2. Two Eastern Fables – June 1889

Works Done
1. Published the annotated edition of Morga’s book
2. Three Filipino societies:
- Kidlat Club
- Indios Bravos
- R.D.L.M.
3. Telefono

Articles for La Solidaridad
1. “A La Defensa” (To La Defensa)
2. “La Verdad Para Todos” ( The Truth for All)
3. “Vicente Barrantes’ Teatro Tagalo”
4. Una Profanacion” (A Profanation)
5. “Verdades Nevas” (New Truths)
6. “Crueldad” (Cruelty)
7. “Diferencias” (Differences)
8. “Inconsequencias” (Inconsequences)
9. “Llanto y Risas” (Tears and Laughters)
10. “Ingratitudes” (Ingratitude)
Last Hong Kong Letters
31st birthday on June 19, 1892
2 letters : "To be opened after my death"
- Parents, Brethren, and Friends
- Filipinos
Things he did
Write his second novel (El Filibusterismo)
Write letters for family and friends
Write articles for La Solidaridad
Spent part time in a medical clinic

Romance with Petite Jacoby
Summertime festival of Belgium
Romance with Petite Suzanne

Rizal in Biarritz, France
Solace and vacation
Boustead Family
Romance with Nelly Boustead
Rizal’s marriage proposal
Support of Antonio Luna and his close friends
Failure of the marriage proposal due to two reasons:
Rizal’s faith
Nelly’s mother disliked him due to 3 reasons:
- Poor in material things
- Physician without a paying clientele
- A reformist


Manuscript of El Fili was finished
Retirement from the Propaganda Movement
Stopped writing for the La Solidaridad.
A co-worker in the Propaganda
Died of tuberculosis (August 19, 1890)

Aborted duel with Antonio Luna
Nellie Boustead
Duel with Wenceslao Retana
First book –length biography of the greatest Filipino hero. (Rizal)
Infidelity of Leonor Rivera
Teatro Apolo
Leonor’s marriage to an Englishman(Charles Kipping)
Donya Silvestra Rivera
Attackers of Noli
Father Jose Rodriguez
Cuestiones de Sumo Interes (Questions of Supreme Interest) - Eight Pamphlets
1. Porque no los he de leer? (Why Should I not read them)
2. Guardaos de ellos. Porque? ( Beware of them. Why?)
3. Y que me dice usted de la peste? ( And what can you tell me of Plague)
4. Porque Triunfan los impios? (Why Do the Impious Triumph?)
5. Cree usted que de veras no hay purgatorio? (Do You Think There is Really no Purgatory?)
6. Hay o no hay infierno? (Is There or Is There No Hell)
7. Que le parcece a usted de esos libelos (What Do You Think of These Libels)
8. Confesion o condenacion?(Confession or Damnation?)
Noli Me Tangere in Spain
Senators:
General Jose de Salamanca
General Luis de Pando
Sr. Fernando Vida

Vicente Barantes
Spanish academician of Madrid who formerly occupied high government position in the Philippines

Defenders of the Noli Me Tangere
Propagandists:
1. Marcelo H. del Pilar
2. Graciano Lopez-Jaena
3. Antonio Ma. Regidor
4. Mariano Ponce
Father Francisco de Paula Sanchez – Rizal’s favorite teacher in Ateneo
Don Segismundo Moret – former Minister of the Crown
Prof. Miguel Morayta- historian and stateman
Prof. Ferdinand Blumentritt – Rizal’s best friend
William Dean Howells
Lieutenant Andrade

Defenders of Noli
Rev. Fr. Vicente Garcia
– a Filipino Catholic priest-scholar, a theologian of the Manila Cathedral and a Tagalog translator of the famous Imitation of Christ by Thomas Kempis
wrote under the pen name Justo Desiderio Magalang
Friars Reaction
Eviction of all tenants from the Dominican Hacienda
Gov. Gen Valeriano Weyler
Regained Power
Tenants Reaction
Public Demonstration
Doroteo Cortes
Petition to Queen Regent
Arrest
Full transcript