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Minerals

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Mr J Daykin

on 29 January 2015

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Transcript of Minerals

Amethyst
An Amethyst is a violet variety of Quartz often used in jewelery. Some amethyst are covered in another mineral. It would be coated in barite. The colour is caused by traces of iron. It has been used as a gemstone for thousands of years. It is most found in America.
Beryl
Beryl is a mineral which comes in a variety of colours. The colours come in green, yellow, pink, colourless or blue. Beryl is a star sign for Scorpio and the talismanic sign for Sagittarius. It is used for both industry and fashion. The chemical beryllium is found in beryl.
Copper
Copper a mineral used for alot of things. a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus.Alloying copper with tin to make bronze was first practiced about 4000 years after the discovery of copper smelting, and about 2000 years after "natural bronze" had come into general use.
Diamonds!!!
Diamonds are extremely popular and rare.Diamond is April’s birthstone.
Diamonds are the hardest natural substance on Earth.
Diamonds were formed billions of years ago through a combination of tremendous pressure and temperatures of 2000º –3000º F at depths between 75 and 120 miles beneath the earth’s surface.
Diamond crystals are brought closer to the earth’s surface through volcanic activity.
Minerals

Emeralds!
The word emerald comes from the Latin smaragdus which means green.

Emeralds come in various shades of green, from deep darkish green to soft green, fine grass green and light green.

Reflecting the colour
of spring, emerald is the birthstone for May. It is also a traditional gift for those celebrating 20th or 35th anniversaries.

Emeralds are relatively strong gemstones, registering 7.5 - 8 on the Mohs scale of hardness. While they are fairly resilient to knocks, they can be chipped or scratched.

Emeralds have been found in many countries, including Colombia, Russia and Brazil, which is the world's largest supplier of emeralds. Most of the emeralds for sale at Israel-Diamonds originate in Madagascar, Colombia and Zambia.
Fire opals are unique in the lush world of the opals. They were already admired as symbols of the most fervent love in ancient times, in India and in the ancient Persian kingdom, and among the peoples of Central America and the Amerindians. It was believed that a gem that bubbled over with vivacity to such an extent as the fire opal could only have been created in the waters of paradise. The Mayas and Aztecs loved this gemstone and liked to use it in mosaics and for ritualistic purposes. They called it quetzalitzlipyollitli, the 'stone of the bird of paradise'.
Fire Opal!!!
Garnets!
Aren't garnets those wonderful deep-red gemstones you often find in antique jewellery? Well yes, to a certain extent, a deep, warm red indeed being the colour most frequently found in garnets. Sadly, however, far too few people are aware that the world of the garnets is far more colourful than that. Spectacular finds, especially in Africa, have enhanced the traditional image of the garnet with a surprising number of hues - even if red does continue to be its principal colour. Thanks to their rich colour spectrum, garnets today can quite happily keep pace with changes of style and the colour trends of fashion. And thanks to the new finds, there is a reliable supply of them too. So in fact this gemstone group in particular is one which gives new impetus to the world of jewellery today
Hanksite
Hanksite can be colourless white, green, grey or yellow tranparent or translucent. Hanksite is normally found in crystal form as evaporite deposits.It was first described in 1888 for an occurrence in Searles Lake, California and named for American geologist Henry Garber Hanks.
ICE
Ice (from the Old English "īs", in turn from the Proto-Germanic "*isaz") is water frozen into a solid state. Depending on the presence of impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less opaque bluish-white color.

In the Solar System, ice occurs naturally from as close to the Sun as Mercury to as far as the Oort cloud. Beyond the Solar System, it occurs as interstellar ice. It is abundant on Earth's surface – particularly in the polar regions and above the snow line[1] – and, as a common form of precipitation and deposition, plays a key role in Earth's water cycle and climate. It falls as snowflakes and hail or occurs as frost, icicles or ice spikes.

Ice molecules exhibit different phases (packing geometries) that depend on temperature and pressure. Virtually all the ice on Earth's surface and in its atmosphere is of a hexagonal crystalline structure denoted as ice Ih (spoken as "ice one h"). The most common phase transition to ice Ih occurs when liquid water is cooled below 0°C (273.15K, 32°F) at standard atmospheric pressure. It may also be deposited directly by water vapor, as happens in the formation of frost. The transition from ice to water is melting and from ice directly to water vapor is sublimation
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