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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONALISM

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Andi Alcantara

on 26 November 2015

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Transcript of GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONALISM

19th Century World of Jose Rizal
Nationalism
IDEOLOGY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
National unity
Progress
Independence
Ideas of national superiority
National mission can lead to aggressive crusades and counter-crusades
Stress differences among people
Execution of GOMBURZA on February 17, 1872
Nationalism has evolved
from a real or imagined cultural unity,
manifesting itself in a common language,
history, and territory.
LIBERTY and EQUALITY
Representative government vs. autocratic monarchy
Equality before laws vs. legally separate classes
Freedom of the press
Freedom of speech
Freedom of assembly
Freedom from arbitrary arrest
Promulgation of laws that advance democracy
Undertaking of reforms thru legislation
Abolition of slavery
Adoption of a liberal constitution
Providing the citizens the opportunity to propose laws
Adoption of manhood suffrage
Granting of political, economic and social rights to the people
LIBERALISM
AND
DEMOCRACY

Democracy was non-existent
Believed that if the Filipinos
will enjoy basic rights and freedom,
they would motivated to work for independence
and topple down the Regime.
THE
INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

The rise of the factory system
Mass production of essential and non-essential goods
Improvement of people’s standard of living
Greater urbanization of society
Beginnings of specialization or division of labor
Invention of labor-saving devices
The beginnings of industrial capitalism
Fostering of liberalism and nationalism and
Encouragement of people’s mobility
Widening of the gap between the rich and the poor
Unending economic warfare between labor and capital
Pollution and other environmental problems
Beginning of child and women labor
Intensification of imperialistic rivalry between and
among industrialized countries.
Different measures to lessen the evils in the industrial system
Liberals
Human treatment of workers,
respect for workers’ rights,
and social justice for the poor
Biology
Medical sciences
Physics
Chemistry
The
Age
of
Enlightenment
Effects of scientific revolution
Challenging of
traditional beliefs
in religion and politics
SPAIN
for more advanced studies in Germany
and France to improve his competencies as a physician
THE RESURGENCE OF
Subordinated those lands to their economic interests
Sent forth millions of immigrants
Political influence in Asia and vast political empires in Africa
The economic thrust of robust industrial capitalism
Ever-growing lead in technology
Competitive pressures of European nationalism
OPTIMISM
CONFIDENCE
IN PROGRESS
Optimism or faith in society and man’s ability to progress was brought about by (Chodorow et al, 1994):
The strongest reasons for believing that nature has set no limit to the realization of our hopes
The abolition of inequality between nations
The progress of equality within nations
The true perfection of humanity
Progress was now independent of any power that might wish to halt it and will never be reversed
Optimism and confident in progress can be gleaned from the achievements of men in the 19th century (Capino, 1997):
NATIONALISM
Sense of loyalty or psychological attachment that members of a nation share, based on a common language, history, culture, and desire for independence (Jackson & Jackson, 2000).
Feeling that derives
a people together as
a nation.
Love of country expressed in devotion to and advocacy of national interest and independence.
Growth
RISE AND GRADUAL SPEAD OF
of
NATIONALISM
Liberty
+
Fraternity
+
Equality
Nationalists have usually sought
to turn cultural unity into political reality
so that the territory of each people
coincides with its state boundaries.
Nationalists believed that
every nation has the right
to exist in freedom and
develop its character and spirit.
1
2
3
Philippines
in 19th Century
Denied representation in the Spanish Cortes since 1833
Not inclined to grant basic human rights
displacement of the farmers from their lands
Government has to control
vital industries and resources
Laissez-faire policy
Socialists
All factors of production
be owned and controlled
by the government
Equality in society
can be achieved
if social classes
are destroyed
and dictatorship
of the proletariat
is established
Communists
Catholic Church
The
ADVANCEMENT
of
SCIENCE
19th century
expansion of
scientific
knowledge
Rational and
Empirical Approach
Science became more prominent in popular thinking,
the philosophical implications of science
spread to broad sections of the population.
Technical advances led the people
to develop optimistic faith in
man’s capability to achieve progress
Methods of science acquired
unrivaled prestige after 1850.
The union of careful experiment
and abstract theory
was the only route
to truth and objective reality.
Everyday experience and innumerable scientists
impressed the importance of science
on the mind of ordinary citizens
Challenging the
old established belief
as long as this could be
scientifically explained,
replicated, and validated
Church is not
the sole source
of knowledge
but everyone
can be capable of
achieving knowledge
WESTERN
IMPERIALISM
WESTERN NATIONS PROFITABLY:
Reasons for this culminating surge:
Expansion and
Consequences
The world became in many ways a single unit
Diffused the ideas and techniques of a highly developed civilization
Force to conquer and rule, and treated non-Western peoples are racial inferiors
Non-Western elites, armed with Western doctrines, gradually responded to Western challenge.
They launched a national, anti-imperialist struggle for dignity, genuine independence, and modernization
Right to self-determination or the right to choose
the kind of government under which they would live
and
The advancement of science
The coming of steam-powered industry
The spread of liberalism and socialism
Optimism of the century
Sketch of a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind:
Extension of human rights to many people
Promotion of higher education for men and women
Education for nationalism in schools
Investment in science to serve mankind
Improvement of public health thru
the establishment of numerous hospitals
Emergence of realistic literature,
depicting the life of the time
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF
Marquis de Condorcet
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