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Coal And Petroleum (Integrated Project)

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Anway Pimpalkar

on 14 September 2013

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Transcript of Coal And Petroleum (Integrated Project)

Social Science
Social Science
Thank You!
Past Usage Graph
Current Usage Graph


Formation Of Coal
Fractional Distillation
Uses And
Ill Effects
Alternative Sources
Leading Petroleum Companies
Saudi Aramco is the biggest energy producing company in the world. It is an oil company owned by the entire kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The quality of the coal is widely accepted. Roughly one fifth of all the petroleum produced in the world comes from this company – nearly 262 billion barrels a day.
Saudi Aramco
National Iranian Oil Company
Iran has a large control over the major south western oil reserves. National Iranian Oil Company, with a vast amount of oil and gas resources, is one of the world’s largest oil companies. It produces about 137 billion barrels of petroleum and natural gas a day.
Total Oil Industry
Total is a global oil industry leader. Producing around 2.7 million barrels a day, they have setup operations in over 130 countries, making them a major producer of petroleum.
The demand for energy is hiking rapidly in the world. We all know that coal and petroleum are very useful resources for us. But they come with some disadvantages too. Some of the reasons for this are:
Pollute the environment.
These minerals are found deep below the surface of Earth; thus difficult to extract
These factors are forcing mankind to find alternatives of coal
and petroleum. Lets take a look at some of the
potential alternatives of coal and petroleum.
Solar Energy
Solar energy is the energy of sunlight collected and used to provide electricity, to heat water, and to heat or cool homes, businesses or industry. Sunlight is a clean, renewable source of energy. It is a sustainable resource, meaning it doesn't run out, but can be maintained because the sun shines almost every day. Coal or petroleum are not sustainable or renewable: once they are gone, there is none left.
Wind Energy
Hydro-electricity uses the energy of running water to make electrical energy. This source produces clean power. This means that this does not produce any greenhouse gases. Hydro-electric stations are built where there is running water. Most hydro-electric stations are located in dams where water is stored. But hydro-electric stations can also be built on rivers and near waterfalls.
Geothermal Energy
Geothermal energy is energy made by heat inside the Earth's crust It's clean and sustainable. Geothermal energy can be found at various places beneath the earth's crust, such as:
Shallow ground where the earth picks up solar energy
Hot water and rock found a few miles beneath the crust
The Core of the Earth - molten rock and metals
It has been used for bathing from Paleolithic times, but is now better known for making electricity.
Rohit M. ,Chitwan,
Himmat,Parth, Utkarsha,Anway

How Does Hike in Petroleum Affect
Common Man?
Petrol has become an indispensable part of our day-to-day life, and we can’t imagine our life without it. But the petrol prices are sky rocketing, and it affects each and everything that we use in our day to day life.
Poor people are already working hard to earn square meal a day and this hike is definitely going to paralyze these already-burdened people. Within three years petrol price has increased 10 times and is still increasing. Petrol hike directly or indirectly affects all the major sectors like :-
transportation, textiles,
FMCG etc, for manufacturing & transportation.
This affects the prices of daily essential commodities which are transported on a daily basis.
Banking sector is also expected to suffer due to high inflation level.
Coal forms in swampy areas as the result of the decay of plants in
the absence of oxygen. Biochemical changes produced by bacteria
release oxygen and hydrogen and concentrate carbon. Coal goes through several changes during formation. With increased pressure, temperature and time, impurities and moisture are removed. In swamps where coal forms, other sediment, such as sand, clay, and silt, also is deposited. The weight of the sediment compresses the underlying organic matter.
During this process, moisture and other materials are squeezed out, leaving a high carbon concentration.
The various components of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components. Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can be separated easily by a process called fractional distillation. This is the most important step in the refining industry. This is where you can get products like
gasoline, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil and other products like bitumen,
lubricants, etc. from crude oil.
We use coal everywhere in our life. In fact, we nowadays cannot imagine our life without the involvement of coal. Coal is used in electricity generation, steel production and cement manufacturing. Lets take a closer look at the uses of coal.
Modern life is unimaginable without electricity. It lights houses, provides domestic and industrial heat, and powers most equipment used in homes machinery in factories etc. Improving access to electricity worldwide is critical to alleviating poverty. Coal plays a vital role in electricity generation worldwide. Coal-fired power plants currently
fuel 41% of global electricity.
Globally around 70% of steel produced relies on coal. Steel is produced using a form of coal known as coke .Many of the goods and services we rely on in today’s society are dependent on steel – such as healthcare, telecommunications and transport.
Coal is used as an energy source in the cement industry
as large amounts of energy are required to produce cement.
Cement is critical to the building industry, and is used in many different applications – such as home and office buildings, transport, the transport or collection of water, agriculture and the production of civil works such as
roads, piers etc.

There are a number of negative health effects of coal that occur through its mining, preparation, combustion, waste storage, and transport. Negative health effects from coal use within India include:

We use petroleum so much in our daily lives that it
has become an inseparable need in our lives. We use petroleum everywhere – cooking food, driving cars,
and even for making plastic storage utensils! Lets
learn about the major needs of petroleum in our
Reduction in life expectancy
 Respiratory hospital admissions
 Black lung from coal dust
 Congestive heart failure
 Non-fatal cancer, osteoporosis, ataxia, renal dysfunction
 Chronic bronchitis, asthma attacks, etc.
 Loss of IQ from air and water pollution and nervous system damage
 Degradation and soiling of buildings that can effect human health
 Global warming
 Ecosystem loss and degradation, with
negative effects on health and quality
of life.

Uses at a glance
Food Preservatives: The shelf life of canned foods can be increased by food additives, derived from petrochemicals.
Make Up: Make-up’s that contain oils, perfumes, waxes and color, are derived from petrochemicals.
Synthetic Fibers: Polyester, nylon, and acrylic are all derived from petrochemicals. They are used for curtains, carpets, rope and even our
everyday clothing.
Distribution Of

Petroleum is not distributed evenly around the world. More than half of the world’s proven oil reserves are located in the Middle East (including Iran but not North Africa); that is to say, the Middle East contains more oil than the rest of
the world combined.
A Cement Factory
Which country is the leading producer of petroleum?

Which is the leading energy producing company in the world?

Which country produces 137 barells of oil everyday?

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