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Transcript of Personality Factors
associated with feelings of uneasiness, frustration, self-doubt, apprehension or worry.
1950s - 1960s
Ehrman and Oxford’s study.
Foreign Service Institute
Can we predict the learning if we know the type of category?
Successful and unsuccessful learning
What might all this have to do with the second language learner?
What is motivation?
What does it mean to say that someone is motivated?
The emotional side
of human behaviour
The development of
Definition of Affective domain by Benjamin Bloom
Voluntary without coercion
Instrumental and Integrative Orientations
All human beings build sets of defenses to protect the ego
no concept of
its own self
start noticing differences
Degrees of awareness, responding and valuing
Create a system of affective traits
Changes bring on mounting defensive inhibitions to protect a fragile ego
the process of building defenses continues
More able to withstand threats
maintain walls of inhibition to protect their ego
SLA and inhibition
Making mistakes is important to learn a SL because we can make a progress by learning from our mistakes.
More permanent predisposition to be anxious about many things
Experienced in relation to some particular event or act
Foreign language anxiety
Yes, you are
No, you're not
I am smart
Which is more powerful?
No successful cognitive or affective activity can be carried out without some degree of:
Knowledge of yourself.
Belief in your own capabilities for that activity.
The last part of the 20th century saw significant advances in study of the brain through different techniques.
Using such techniques, some connections have been made between affectivity and second language acquisition.
The Neurobiology of Affect
Neurobiology informs several areas of interest for language acquisition studies such as
"All human beings have a need for
John Schumann’s work has singled out one special section: the amygdala.
Defining oneself and finding acceptance in expressing that self in relation to valued others.
The amygdala is important in our ability to make an evaluation of a stimulus.
‘Positive appraisals of the language learning situation enhance language learning and negative appraisals inhibit second language learning’
What does "self-steem" mean?
Certain questions about motivation refer to:
Pleasantness: I enjoy learning English very much.
Goal relevance: Studying French can be very important to me because it will allow me to…
Coping potential: I never feel quite sure of myself when…
Norm/ self compatibility: Being able to speak English will add to my social status
Most tests of personality are paper-and-pencil tests that ask for a self-rating. These tests presents three problems:
Measuring Affective Factors
1. The most important issue in measuring affectivity is the problem of validity.
2. A second related problem lies in what has been called the ‘self-flattery syndrome’
3. Tests of self-esteem, empathy, motivation can be quite culturally ethnocentric.
"It is the evaluation which individuals make and maintain with regard to themselves..."
"It expresses an attitude of approval or disapproval, and indicates the extent to which individuals believe themselves to be capable, significant, successful and worthy."
Levels of self-esteem
Relatively stable in a mature adult.
It might be analogized to a statistical mean or median level of overall self-appraisal.
In particular life situations:
On certain relatively discretely defined traits:
The degree of this level may vary depending upon the situation or the trait in question.
What does "empathy" mean?
She studied the effects of the three levels of self-esteem on performance of an oral production task by American college students learning French as a foreign language.
All three levels of self-esteem correlated positively with performance on the oral production measure.
The highest correlation was between task self-esteem and performance on oral production measures.
Learners have to be able to gamble a bit, to be willing to try out hunches about the language and take the risk of being wrong.
In the classroom:
Bad grade in the course.
A fail on the exam.
A reproach from the teacher.
A smirk from a classmate.
Punishment or embarrassment imposed by one-self.
Outside the classroom:
The frustration coming from a listener's blank look.
The danger of not being able to take care of themselves.
The alienation of not being able to communicate.
Loss of identity.
To establish an adequate affective framework.
Learners feel comfortable.
Create a climate of acceptance.
Encourage participants to experiment and to discover the target language.
Allow themselves to take risks.
What are your reasons to acquire a second language?
Gardner & Lambert
Attitudinal and motivational factors
So please please please
let me, let me, let me
let me get what i want
In more common words, it is the process of "putting yourself into someone else's shoes", of reaching beyond the self to understand what another person is feeling.
In more sophisticated terms, it is usually described as the projection of one's own personality into the personality of another in order to understand him/her better.
Awareness and knowledge of one's own feelings.
Identification with another person.
Communication requires empathy.
Other person's affective and cognitive states.
False presuppositions or assumptions are made about the other person's state.
Trascend our own ego boundaries so that we can send and receive clearly.
Relates to particular tasks whithin specific situations.
Specific self-esteem might encompass SLA in general, and task self-esteem might refer to one's self-evaluation of a particular aspect of the process.