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AP Biology Big Idea 1 Fiser
Transcript of AP Biology Big Idea 1 Fiser
1.B.1.a.3. Metabolic pathways are conserved across all currently recognized domains. 1.B Organisms are linked by lines of descent from common ancestory.
1.B.1 Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today. 1.A.4.b.3. Biochemical and genetic similarities, in particular DNA nucleotide and protein sequences, provide evidence for evolution and ancestry.
1.A.4.b.4 Mathematical models and simulations can be used to illustrate and support evolutionary concepts.
Graphical analyses of allele frequencies in a population;
Analysis of sequence data sets;
Analysis of phylogenetic trees;
Construction of phylogenetic trees based on sequence data. 1.A.4. Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics.
1.A.4.a Scientific evidence of biological evolution uses information from geographical, geological, physical, chemical, and mathematical applications. 1.A.1.g. Conditions for a population or an allele to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are:
1. a large population size
2. absence of migration
3. no mutations
4. random mating
5. absence of selection.
These conditions are seldom met. Don’t forget protobionts.
http://brownapreview.wikispaces.com/Evolution 1.C.3.a Scientific evidence supports the idea that evolution has occurred in all species.
1C.3.b Scientific evidence supports the idea that evolution continues to occur. For example:
Chemical resistance (mutations for resistance to antibiotics, pesticides, herbicides or chemotherapy drugs occur in the absence of the chemical)
Observed directional phenotypic change in a population (Grant’s observations of Darwin’s finches in the Galapagos)
A eukaryotic example that describes evolution of a structure or process such as heart chambers, limbs, the brain and the immune system. 1.C.3. Populations of organisms continue to evolve. 1.C.2. Speciation results in diversity of life forms. Species can be physically separated by a geographical barrier such as an ocean or a mountain range, or various pre-and post-zygotic mechanisms can maintain reproductive isolation and prevent gene flow. 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations become reproductively isolated from each other http://m.teachastronomy.com/astropediaimages/Geologic_time_scale.jpg 1.C.1. b. Species extinction rates are rapid at times of ecological stress. For example:
The five major extinctions and human impact on ecosystems and species extinction rates. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/extinction_events
Ordovician-Silurian mass extinction
The third largest extinction in Earth's history, the Ordovician-Silurian mass extinction had two peak dying times separated by hundreds of thousands of years. During the Ordovician, most life was in the sea, so it was sea creatures such as trilobites, brachiopods and graptolites that were drastically reduced in number. We did well with this in class, but we should spend a little time reviewing the creation of cladograms. On our list of things to do. Check your own review books if you know you might need help. 1.B.2.b Phylogenetic trees and cladograms illustrate speciation that has occurred, in that relatedness of any two groups on the tree is shown by how recently two groups had a common ancestor.
1B.2.c Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from morphological similarities of living or fossil species, and from DNA and protein sequence similarities, by employing computer programs that have sophisticated ways of measuring and representing relatedness among organisms.
1.B.2.d Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are dynamic (i.e., phylogenetic trees and cladograms are constantly being revised), based on the biological data used, new mathematical and computational ideas, and current and emerging knowledge. 4.C.3. c Allelic variation within a
population can be modeled by
the Hardy-Weinberg equation. (we’ll do the math in another big idea) http://course1.winona.edu/sberg/Equation/H-W-eqn1.gif 1.A.1.h. Mathematical approaches are used to calculate changes in allel frequency, providing evidence for the occurrence of evolution in a population.
graphical analysis of allele frequencies in a population and
application of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation. (review problems are a must!) 1.A. Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.
1. A.1 Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution.
1.A.1.a According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, competition for limited resources results in differential survival. Individuals with more favorable phenotypes are more likely to survive and produce more offspring, thus passing traits to subsequent generations.
1.A.1.b Evolutionary fitness is measured by reproductive success.
1.A.1.c. Genetic variation and mutation play roles in natural selection. A diverse gene pool is important for the survival of a species in a changing environment.
1.A.1.d. Environments can be more or less stable or fluctuation, and this affects evolutionary rate and direction; different genetic variations can be selected in each generation.
1.A.1.e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection and is manifested as a trait that provides an advantage to an organism in a particular environment.
1.A.1.f. In additional to natural selection, chance random events can influence the evolutionary process, especially for small populations. Evolution
The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. Big Idea 1 1.D.2.a.2 Chemical experiments have shown that it is possible to form complex organic molecules from inorganic molecules in the absence of life
experiment-fi.svg.png http://cdn.media.discovermagazine.com/~/media/import/images/5/8/a/tpna.jpg 1.D.1.5 The RNA World Hypothesis
proposes that RNA could have been the earliest genetic material. http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/higher/biology/images/10polyploid_formation.gif 1.C.2.b. New species arise from reproductive isolation over time, which an involve scales of hundreds of thousands or even millions of years, or speciation can occur rapidly through mechanisms such as polyploidy in plants. http://tvt7.blogspot.com/2011_03_01_archive.html http://images.sciencedaily.com/2007/10/071004143131-large.jpg http://www.science-art.com/gallery/52/52_10202008105023.jpg http://www.techapps.net/interactives/pepperMoths.swf 1.A.2. Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations
1.A.2. a Environments change and act as selective mechanism on populations. For example: Flowering time in relation to global climate change and the peppered moth.
http://www.truthinscience.org.uk/tis2/images/stories/peppered%20moth.jpg http://imgc.allpostersimages.com/images/P-473-488-90/64/6471/YSPH100Z/posters/carol-mike-werner-illustration-of-the-building-block-molecules-of-cells.jpg 1.D.2.b Molecular and genetic evidence from extant and extinct organisms indicates that all organisms on Earth share a common ancestral origin of life.
1.D.2.b.1. Scientific evidence includes molecular building blocks that are common to all life forms.
1.D.2.b.2 Scientific evidence includes a common genetic code. http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/large_molecules/graphics/06tb.gif 1.D.1.2. In turn, these molecules served as monomers or building blocks for the formation of more complex molecules, including amino acids and nucleotides.
1.D.1.3 The joining of these monomers produced polymers with the ability to replicate, store, and transfer information.
http://iws.collin.edu/biopage/faculty/mcculloch/1406/outlines/chapter%205/Ra28.JPG 1.D.1. There are several hypotheses about the natural origin of life on Earth, each with supporting scientific evidence.
1.D.1.a Scientific evidence supports the various models.
1.D.1.a.1. Primitive Earth provided inorganic precursors from which organic molecules could have been synthesized due to the presence of available free energy and the absence of a significant quantity of oxygen. http://schoolworkhelper.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Miller-Urey-experiment.jpg 1.D The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes. http://bio1151b.nicerweb.net/Locked/media/ch24/24_04ReproBarriersPre.jpg Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinctionThe Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction - also known as the K/T extinction - is famed for the death of the dinosaurs. However, many other organisms perished at the end of the Cretaceous including the ammonites, many flowering plants and the last of the pterosaurs. Triassic-Jurassic mass extinctionDuring the final 18 million years of the Triassic period, there were two or three phases of extinction whose combined effects created the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction event. Climate change, flood basalt eruptions and an asteroid impact have all been blamed for this loss of life. Adaptive Radiation: http://www.cod.edu/people/faculty/fancher/AdaptiveRadiation.htm
One of the most striking evolutionary patterns biologists have observed is called adaptive radiation. To radiate means to spread outward. In this case, this isn't meant in the sense of speading out physically; it refers to one or a few species which diversify ("spread out") and generate multiple daughter species. Something like this 1.C.1 Speciation and extinction have occurred throughout the Earth’s history.
1.C.1a. Speciation rates can vary, especially when adaptive radiation occurs when new habitats become available. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-arqanTLYsv4/USajiEX8WJI/AAAAAAAAACk/gPwYq6iC0kc/s1600/Screen+Shot+2013-02-21+at+1.52.59+PM.png http://www.antibodyreview.com/article_images/18682726/PLoS%20ONE/3-8/pe2857-2478706/pone.0002857.g008.jpg http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/hfsimaging/hfsimaging1208/hfsimaging120800011/14672529-detail-of-cellular-structure-showing-organelles-immobilized-by-cytoskeleton-mesh.jpg 1.B.1.b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes.
Cytoskeleton (a network of structural proteins that facilitate cell movement, morphological integrity, and organelle transport.
Membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria and/or chloroplasts) (all have mitochondria)
Endomembrane systems, including the nuclear envelope. http://www.kirksville.k12.mo.us/khs/teacher_web/alternative/whale-vestigial-structure.jpg 1.A.4.b.2 Morphological homologies represent features shared by common ancestory. Vestigial structures are remnants of functional structures, which can be compared to fossils and provide evidence of evolution. http://montessorimuddle.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Earth_timeline-450x356.jpg http://www.google.com/search?q=stromatolites+first+life&hl=en&safe=active&client=safari&rls=en&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=p4pYUdnEDYem8ATrjYHQDw&ved=0CAoQ_AUoAQ&biw=813&bih=356 1.D.2: Scientific evidence from many different disciplines supports models of the origins of life.
1.D.2.a Geological evidence provides support for models of the origin of life on Earth.
1.D.2.a.1 The Earth formed approximately 4.6 billon years ago
(bya), and the environment was too hostile for life until 3.9 bya, while the earliest fossil evidence for life dates to 3.5 bya. Taken together, this evidence provides a plausible range of dates when the origin of life could have occurred. Permian mass extinctionThe Permian mass extinction has been nicknamed The Great Dying, since a staggering 96% of species died out. All life on Earth today is descended from the 4% of species that survived Late Devonian mass extinctionThree quarters of all species on Earth died out in the Late Devonian mass extinction, though it may have been a series of extinctions over several million years, rather than a single event. Life in the shallow seas were the worst affected, and reefs took a hammering, not returning to their former glory until new types of coral evolved over 100 million years later. http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/evolutionary_tree.jpg http://images.sciencedaily.com/2007/10/071004143131-large.jpg 1.B.2.Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested.
1.B.2.a.Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can represent traits that are either derived or lost due to evolution. For example:
Number of heart chambers in animals, opposable thumbs, and absence of legs in some sea mammals. http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images/582dnarepline.gif http://nnhsbiology.pbworks.com/f/1280666569/transcription%20translation%20diagram.png 1.B.1.a Structural and functional evidence supports the relatedness of all domains.
1.B.1.a.1 DNA and RNA are carriers of genetic information through transcription, translation, and replication. http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_oWU60crWXik/SwaRbt-oViI/AAAAAAAAAHo/hzIwY6-04vk/s1600/800px-Phylogenetic_tree.svg.png Index fossils http://www.wwnorton.com/college/anthro/our-origins2/img/AskClarkFAQs/Figure-8.22.jpg 1.A.4.b. Molecular, morphological and genetic information of existing and extinct organisms add to our understanding of evolution.
1.A.4.b.1 Fossils can be dated by a variety of methods that provide evidence for evolution. These include the age of the rocks where a fossil is found, the rate of decay of isotopes including carbon-14, the relationships within phylogenetic trees, and the mathematical calculations that take into account information from chemical properties and/or geographical data.
http://earthsci.org/fossils/youngp/how2/fauna.gif http://creationwiki.org/pool/images/thumb/c/c7/Founder_effect.png/300px-Founder_effect.png http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IIIDGeneticdrift.shtml 1.A.3. Evolutionary change is also driven by random processes.
1.A.3. a Genetic drift is a non-selective process occurring in small populations. (by chance not selection)
1.A.3.b. Reduction in genetic variation within a given population can increase the differences between populations of the same species. http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/bottleneck_effect.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/cc/Antibiotic_resistance.gif http://www.eoearth.org/files/121301_121400/121332/300px-Genetic_diversity_in_maize.JPG 1.A.2.d Humans impact variation in other species.
For example: Artificial selection, Loss of diversity within a crop species (GMOs); overuse of antibiotics.
DDT-resistant insects have additional genetic advantage that helps resistance spread
http://www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2005/july/ddtinsects.htm 1.A.2.c Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease fitness of the organism and the population. For example: Sickle cell anemia, peppered moth, and DDT resistance in insects.
http://sickle.bwh.harvard.edu/SCD-Malaria.jpg Oparin-Haldane Organic Soup Model Possible explanations
for reactions to occur:
The organic soup model or
Solid reactive surfaces. http://www.scientificamerican.com/media/inline/93739EF5-AB6E-860A-D95558D9A4B0421F_1.jpg http://www.lanl.gov/science/1663/january2012/images/january2012-26.png