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Styrene Project

Design and Professional Skills A

Styrene Project

on 5 December 2012

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Transcript of Styrene Project

Styrotech Solutions By William Davies, Beatrice Sampson, Rob Wallace, James Heal & Tom Smith - Pyrolysis of Petroleum
- Side Chain Chlorination of Ethyl Benzene
- Oxidative Conversion of Ethyl Benzene
- Dehydrogenation of Ethyl Benzene Production Methods - Reactor
- Heat Exchanger
- Separator
- Gas Fired Boiler
- Distillation Columns Equipment Thank you Fed by two streams – Ethyl Benzene and Steam

10% Steam mixed with Ethyl Benzene Stream

HE1 – 150 C, Ethyl Benzene Vaporised

HE2 – 530 C

Steam to HE3 – 350 C,

then to Gas-Fired Boiler – 800 C Dehydrogenation of Ethyl Benzene Streams are mixed

Enter at 650 C and 40KPa – Maximises Yield

Catalyst - Fe2O3 (87%), KOH (11%) and Cr2O3 (2%) The Catalytic Reactor Heat Exchanger System Reactions 65 Mole% Ethyl Benzene reacts
(96.4 Mole%)

Other reactions
(1 Mole%)
(2 Mole%)
(0.6 Mole%) Stream From Reactor Stream contains: Ethyl Benzene, Hydrogen, Styrene, Benzene, Toluene, Methane, Polymers and Tars.

Stream passes back through heat exchanger system in reverse – more economical Condenser and Organic Separator Stream passes through condenser
- Mixture of Gases and liquids

Organic separator
- Gaseous products and water removed

Some organic products lost in gas stream
Gas stream feeds Gas-Fired Boiler Distillation Train Organic Stream to distillation train

Contains three Distillation columns
- Different pressures and temperatures
- Each removes different products
- Some Styrene polymerises The Columns Topping Column – 80 C, 23.3 KPa.
Removes Top Product – Mainly Benzene

Ethyl Benzene Column – 93 C, 6.7 KPa
Removes Top Product – Toluene and Ethyl Benzene

Styrene Column – 103 C, 47 KPa
Top Product – Styrene
Bottom Product – Polymers and Tars - Aim & Objectives
- Importance of Styrene
- Production methods
- Equipment requirements and sizing
- Economics of Styrene
- Conclusion Introduction Aims and Objectives Aim: To present a feasible production process for the manufacture of Styrene

- Explanation and process flow diagram of production method
- Mass balances on each component
- Cost calculations on equipment and materials (optimising cost efficiency)
- Approx size of plant and feasibility
- Income return, and payback time Uses:
- Reactions to produce various polymers (polystyrene, latex, rubber etc.) and composites (wind turbine components)

Strength, durability, economics Importance of Styrene Capital Costs - Percentages of the total cost
- Total of: £140,809,141
- A Rough Breakdown:
Equipment: £49,697,344
Instillation Costs £6,626,312.54
Contractor Fee £6,626,312.54 Operation Costs - Energy
- Labour
- Maintenance and Depreciation Gross Annual Profit - Selling Styrene and by-products
- Minus Cost of Raw materials
- Total of: £63,988,198.24 Net annual profit Net annual profit = GAP – Taxation (24%) – (Operation costs + Maintenance + Depreciation)
= £5,058,691.20 ROI and Payback Time - Return on Investment (Net Profit/Total Investment x 100%) 3.6%
- Payback time (Total investment/Net Profit)
28 years Conclusion - Viable process to achieve aim
- Styrene: indispensable material
- Questionable economic feasibility Recommendations - Volatile prices for Styrene mean possible greater income (e.g.: 2008 higher styrene price)
- Extending plant to produce Ethyl Benzene
- Optimum geographical location Any Questions? Design Proposal for a Styrene Production Plant
School of Chemical Engineering December 2012 References Felder, Richard M. & Rousseau, Ronald W. 2005. Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes. Third Edition. United States of America, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs. April 2012. Corporation Tax Rates. [online]. HMRC. Available from: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/rates/corp.htm [Accessed 1/12/12]
Mellor Truong. June 2012. Ethyl Benzene (Europe). [online] ICIS. Available from: http://www.icispricing.com/il_shared/Samples/SubPage93.asp [Accessed 01/12/12]
Maréchal, Philippe. Oct 2012. 2. Product Information and Characteristics [online] The European Chemical Industry Council. Available from: http://www.styrenemonomer.org/2.3.html [Accessed 17/11/12]
School of Chemical Engineering, Design and Professional Skills A. Assignment 3 [25/10/12] Manufacture of Styrene. University of Birmingham, Birmingham UK.
Sinnott, R. K. 2005. Coulson and Richardson's Chemical Engineering - Chemical Engineering Design. Fourth Edition. Volume 6. Elsevier.
Styrene Information and Research Centre SIRC - Snyder, Jack. 2011. Title. [online]. Styrene Information and Research Centre. Available from: http://www.styrene.org/ [Accessed 11/11/12]
Walas, S. M. 1990. Chemical Process Equipment - Selection and Design. First Edition. [online]. Elsevier. Available from: http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/browse/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=401 [Accessed 04/12/12]
Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index Cost of Styrene plant in 1987 - £90,000,000

Using CEPI allows estimate of this cost in 2012
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