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The Big Bang Theory

Science project for SNC1D on The Big Bang Theory.
by

Erin Shackleton

on 29 March 2011

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Transcript of The Big Bang Theory

The Big Bang Theory No, not the TV show. The Big Bang Theory is actually and effort to explain how the universe was born. Introduction When someone says The Big Bang Theory, we automatically think of the sitcom on TV. The real Big Bang occured sometime around 14 billion years ago and was only discovered relatively recently. Scientists still continue to learn more about it everyday. Why are we here? How did we get here? What is our purpose? People have been asking these questions for centuries. Only recently have we been able to come up with a conclusion to some of these questions. The Big Bang was the beginning of time, mass, energy, space and eventually us. About 13.7 billion years ago a miracle happened. The Big Bang happened out of nowhere. Technically, it came out of something called a 'singularity' which is the plug hole within a black hole that is so pressurized that it squishes a finite volume into a infinite density. It is infinitely small, and infinitely hot. Before this moment, there was nothing. No time, mass or energy. (Strickland, Unkn) After this moment, our baby universe began to expand and develop into what it is today. A Misconception Many people think that because of the name, The Big Bang Theory was a big explosion. This is not true. The Big Bang Theory explains that at the time of the bang the universe immideately began to expand and still continues to expand today. The Proof After The Big Bang If our universe had exploded like in the top diagram, then it would be the same size as it was 13.7 billion years ago. We can see using spectroscopes that other galaxies are speeding away from ours in all directions. During the 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered that using a spectroscope you can see that galaxies are moving away from our own. Astrologists took this information and created The Big Bang Theory. Because the universe is expanding, that would mean that it had to be much smaller at some point and would had to have been triggered by some sort of powerful energy force. Four basic forces were formed out of the big bang theory- electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force and gravity. (Strickland, Unkn) These four forces of energy would eventually create atoms -the building blocks of matter- three minutes after after the big bang. A Big Thought How The Spectroscope Works When a car goes by, the sound wavelengths start out low, then become higher as they come closer to you, and then lower again as the car moves away. This is called the Doppler Effect. Light wavelengths work the same way. The spectroscope uses light wavelengths from stars in other galaxies to see that they are moving away from us because the wavelengths were lower and more spread out. On the spectroscope, when the wavelengths are farther apart, it shows up as red and when they are closer together it shows up as blue. x8 x80 For the longest time the universe was just a ball of hot energy. It was so hot that if it did not cool the atoms would not have a chance to fuse and create matter at all. However, the universe kept expanding and as it expanded, it cooled. The first matter particles were formed out of the atoms that were originally formed just three minutes after the big bang. Scientists compare this to a reverse atomic bomb. An atomic bomb takes matter and converts it into a powerful force of energy. The universe did the exact opposite. Just as matter was formed, so was antimatter. When these two particles met, they immeadeatley obliterated eachother. The universe was like a giant battlefield, full of explosions. Luckily for us, there was an imbalance of particles. for every 100 000 000 particles of antimatter there was 100 000 001 particles of matter.(National Geographic) It was a tiny miracle, and this was how stars, planets ect. were formed into what they are today. After billions and billions of years, more diverse kinds of matter were formed through chemical reactions and pressure created by the baby universe. Eventually, galaxies and the very first planets were formed. Life on earth finally started out as tiny organisms in the ocean and after ice ages and various techtonic plate movement, humans evolved. Proof That You Can Find In Your Own Home Since The Big Bang was said to be very hot at the beginning, scientists looked for some remainder today of this heat.. Three minutes after The Big Bang, the first atoms were created out of hydrogen and helium bonded with electrons. (Nat. Geo.) When this happened, there was so much energy and heat that light occupied every corner of the universe. Scientists call the remains of this explosion cosmic microwave radiation. If you turn on an untuned radio or TV, a very tiny part of that buzzing sound is from the radiation created 13.7 billion years ago. The Hubble Telescope In 1990, when The Hubble Space Telescope was launched, it created extremely clearer pictures of other galaxies and our universe, because telescopes used on Earth were most often blocked by all the clouds in the atmosphere. Scientists learn more from The Hubble everyday, but relatively recently they directed it at a very dark spot in the universe, which was really just the size of a pinhole-just to see how far they could see. This project turned out to be sucessful; they found that even throught at tiny point in which they looked through there was many more galaxies to be seen. They were looking at the very edge of the universe. From here they looked at the rate of speeed that the galaxies at the edge of the universe were moving away from our own. Scientists used to think that since our universe had slowed down considerably since the point it was created, that it would eventually stop altogether. When they measured how fast these galaxies on the edge of the universe were moving away from ours, they discovered that the universe is actually speeding up. We don't exactly know what this means yet, but it could mean that the universe will speed up so much that it will collapse on itself and demolish space, time, mass, planets and everything else.
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